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ARROWs for Change bulletin Vol. 17 No. 1 (Repoliticising Financing: Repoliticising Political Support for Women's Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights)

ARROWs for Change bulletin Vol. 17 No. 1 (Repoliticising Financing: Repoliticising Political Support for Women's Health and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights)

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Published by Malyn Ando
Guest edited by Shobha Raghuram, this latest issue of our flagship publication showcases articles exploring issues related to funding for women’s health, particularly for SRHR. Contributors include Saira Shameem, Ireen Dubel, Carolina Ruiz, Marina Durano and Margaret Chung for Spotlight articles; and Rosalia Sciortino for the Fact File. There are also Monitoring pieces from Raz Mohammad Dalili, Bushra Khaliq and Romelyn Imperio. The panel of reviewers for this issue include Adrienne Germain, Jacqueline Pitanguy, Khawar Mumtaz, Manisha Desai, Naeemah Khan, Noelene Nabulivou, Rokeya Kabir and Vanessa Griffen.

Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and funded by Sida, this publication can be accessed at www.arrow.org.my/publications/AFC/v17n1.pdf

ARROWs for Change is a flagship, peer-reviewed bulletin that aims to contribute Asian-Pacific, global South, rights-based and gender perspectives to global discourses on emerging and persistent issues related to health, sexuality and rights. The thematic bulletin also explores the inter-linkages between SRHR issues and other development issues. Begun in 1995, the bulletin is currently produced twice yearly in English, and translated to strategic languages several times a year. It has a circulation of about 8,000 in 120 countries globally.

To get back issues of AFC, visit www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Subscription to AFC: e-copies is free, as is subscription to print copies for those based in Asia, Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. A minimal fee for those based in North America and Western Europe is applicable. Get the form at www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Should you need print copies for distribution during meeting or for training purposes, let us know. ARROW also translates AFC into selected strategic Asia-Pacific languages. Contact us to discuss possible partnerships. Your thoughts and constructive comments are also welcome. Please email the Managing Editor, Malyn Ando, at malyn@arrow.org.my and afc@arrow.org.my
Guest edited by Shobha Raghuram, this latest issue of our flagship publication showcases articles exploring issues related to funding for women’s health, particularly for SRHR. Contributors include Saira Shameem, Ireen Dubel, Carolina Ruiz, Marina Durano and Margaret Chung for Spotlight articles; and Rosalia Sciortino for the Fact File. There are also Monitoring pieces from Raz Mohammad Dalili, Bushra Khaliq and Romelyn Imperio. The panel of reviewers for this issue include Adrienne Germain, Jacqueline Pitanguy, Khawar Mumtaz, Manisha Desai, Naeemah Khan, Noelene Nabulivou, Rokeya Kabir and Vanessa Griffen.

Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW) and funded by Sida, this publication can be accessed at www.arrow.org.my/publications/AFC/v17n1.pdf

ARROWs for Change is a flagship, peer-reviewed bulletin that aims to contribute Asian-Pacific, global South, rights-based and gender perspectives to global discourses on emerging and persistent issues related to health, sexuality and rights. The thematic bulletin also explores the inter-linkages between SRHR issues and other development issues. Begun in 1995, the bulletin is currently produced twice yearly in English, and translated to strategic languages several times a year. It has a circulation of about 8,000 in 120 countries globally.

To get back issues of AFC, visit www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Subscription to AFC: e-copies is free, as is subscription to print copies for those based in Asia, Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe. A minimal fee for those based in North America and Western Europe is applicable. Get the form at www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/arrows-for-change.html. Should you need print copies for distribution during meeting or for training purposes, let us know. ARROW also translates AFC into selected strategic Asia-Pacific languages. Contact us to discuss possible partnerships. Your thoughts and constructive comments are also welcome. Please email the Managing Editor, Malyn Ando, at malyn@arrow.org.my and afc@arrow.org.my

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Vol. 17 No. 1 2011
 Asian-Pacic Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW)www.arrow.org.my
Declining development aid: Teroad to sel-reliance?
Developmentaid, with its rapidly changing trendsand cut–backs, has been a matter o extreme concern or hundreds o civilsociety organisations (CSO) involvedin bringing social justice to vulnerablepopulations. Te pursuit o the right todevelopment and the role o people’sorganisations in achieving this, includingor sexual and reproductive health andrights (SRHR), deserve consistentnancing and long-term supportrom national governments and theinternational development community.However, the withdrawal rom aidcommitments by nancial supporterso public causes, as well as growingprivatisation o health care, have orcedus to rethink what needs to be done.
Revitalising the citizenship o  women: Obligations and entitlements.
o revitalise the search orequality, we need to change the way we have worked over the lastseveral years.
Te dependency trap needs to be set right, not with more dependency but with more sel-reliance.
 Tis
 ARROWs or Change 
 bulletin issue on unding or women’s health, particularly SRHR,suggests that unding is a collective task and that und-raising andund-provisioning ow rom citizenship
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obligations.It is a moralcall or donors and donees alike. Donor support trends today otenreduces the constituency in the eld to a recipient rather than apartner with its own agency.
 Asia-Pacic region and development: Te challenge or unders.
 
Sixty percent o the world’s population live in this regiono paradoxes, o high progress in certain areas and regressionsin others. wo o the world’s most populous countries—Chinaand India—have posted high economic growth rates. Yet, theregion hosts two-thirds o the world’s poor—18.8 billion peoplelive on less than US$2 a day, while 947 million live on less thanUS$1.25 a day.
3
Forty-eight countries, in all their diversity o human development ranking and skewedGender-related Development Index(GDI) indicators, oer a major challengeto governments, international donors andcivil society activists. Moreover, the natureo uneven development and the neglecto women’s health in the region are stark. Te highest mortality rates per 100,000live births are in Aghanistan (1,700 per100,000 in 1990 to 1,900 in 2000), Nepal(740) and imor-Leste (660).
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o arriveat the levels o care provisioning already attained by women in the Northerncountries, unds need to be doubled.Despite these, Asia receives the lowest percapita assistance o all regions—US$12compared with US$45 or Arica.
3
From South to South, the BRICS:New development unds or the LDCs?
 When some 9,000 government membersand activists met rom 9-13 May 2011in urkey, Istanbul at the ourth UN Conerence on the LeastDevelopment Countries (LDCs), the much-needed nancingor 48 LDCs (14 o which are rom Asia-Pacic) was one o theitems on the agenda. Since 1970, only three countries worldwidehave managed to go above the US$745 annual income or LDCcountries. Tis is a matter o global concern.Ofcial development assistance (ODA, or aid) ell romUS$122.4 billion in 2008 to US$120 billion in 2009 due to therecession. While this has gone up again to US$128.7 billion in2010, OECD preliminary ndings suggest slower aid growthin the uture.
5
Moreover, the 2010 ODA gures represent only 0.32% o the gross national income (GNI), a long way rom thetarget o 0.7% o GNI agreed by governments at the UN in 1970,
6
 or even the revised target o 0.51% o GNI set by DevelopmentAssistance Committee (DAC) member countries in 2005.
7
  Te United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimatesthat US$68-70 billion yearly is needed to achieve the pledge atthe International Conerence on Population and Development
 
Vol. 17 No. 1 2011
n
ISSN 1394-4444Published by the Asian-Pacific Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW), www.arrow.org.my
Repoliticising Financing:
Re-energising Political Support for Women’s Health andSexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
1
   A   R   R   O   W   P   h  o   t  o   b  a  n   k
 
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Vol. 17 No. 1 2011
 Asian-Pacic Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW)www.arrow.org.my
(ICPD) or universal access to reproductive health.
8,9
O thisamount, 1/3 (about US$21.7 billion) should come rom donorunding, yet in 2008, donor unding was only US$10.4 billion.
8,9
 At the 4th UN LDC meeting, Northern developedcountries ailed to deliver on their pledges and did not make new commitments to support the LDCs.
10
However, the meeting was crucial or determining new modalities o achieving South-developed sel-reliance. It can be seen as a way orward o making aunied demand to Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICS), as wellas countries like South Korea, to enter into long-term developmentassistance arrangements with less developed countries, given theirown development experiences o the last hal century. Tey canbring changes which can result in a South-owned developmententerprise, reecting also the best practices o Northern donors. Atthe same time though, the demand rom civil society that Northerndonors meet their commitments still needs to be sustained.
 What is to be done? Issues or sel-reexive stocktaking.
 Waysorward must include:
Undertaking a critical review of aected women’s
citizenship status, including on SRHR, drawn up with community members. Such an undertaking should consider actors like age,caste, disability, ethnicity, gender identity, geographical location,marital status, race, sexual orientation and socio-economic status.
Stocktaking of the extent of engagement of the
organisation in basic health care services, as well as drawing up ananalysis or the organisation’s positioning on SRHR issues.
Conducting a thorough assessment of the organisation’s
accountability status, whether private donors and CSOs. Parto this is making available to communities accurate inormation,online availability o data regarding unds utilisation o servingorganisation, and developing tracking and reporting systems orund ows at the local, national and international levels. As well,government and industry memorandum o understanding withbilateral agencies need CSO representation prior to agreements.
Stating the community’s political stand on sovereignty 
and how they wish to engage internationally to enhancecooperation, producing or all partners a quality o respectul and just engagement. Tis will help develop ‘internationalism’ without‘sacricing the local or the global.’
An internal analysis on how networks can thrive in the
international arena with an equally strong base at the local level.
Drawing up of strategies for nancial mobilisation at the
levels o government unding, international/external unding,membership support, alliances with like-minded industries andtheir contributions.
Assessment of the role of donors and what kind of support
resulted in major victories or the civil sector. Drawing up aninventory o good donor practices and good recipient practices, which can lead to sealing consortium pacts with convergent visions and action plans.
Redesigning phase-out plans with out-going funders. Private
oundations, as well as several European donors, have been ableto retain their space or committed support to SHRH issues, buthave been increasingly ocused in selected countries in the region.Contracts must include phase-out strategies which in the short-term and the long-term assist the recipient to sustain its activities.
Engaging global health initiatives strategically. Te Global
Fund to Fight AIDS, uberculosis and Malaria does not haveSRHR at its core unding policy; however, i country contextsare strongly ramed with a clear SHRH ocus, there is a greaterpossibility o the Fund’s direction being determined rom ‘below.’
Ensuring that public sector expenditures address public
health care, including or SRHR. Asian governments have steadily decreased expenditures on public health care.
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Funding gaps havebeen estimated at 25% and above.
Drawing up an inventory of like-minded agencies across
the world, national agencies and local organisations. Te uture will require greater convergence and consortium-style operations where South agencies and like-minded international NGOs can work together internationally. Te engagement o donors that areaccountable and supporter o women’s rights and SRHR issues arenecessary. Te government and the private sector can renew their pledgesto civil society by serving as core und-providers or people’sassociations. Te Asia-Pacic region has strong civil society initiatives reecting in their demands the deeper needs that areoten neglected in patriarchal settings and in broader governancedebates. Many organisations and networks have called or renewalo commitments o donors or strengthening movements.Holding on to the vision o a comprehensive SRHR does notexclude a country-by-country contextualisation, and inuencinglocal government support or the same. All social movementsmust insist on gender equality measures and budgets rom electedgovernments. Alliance building with like-minded agencies,individuals, donors and committed government members canstrengthen the political voice o people, and build a critical massbase. Financial support or such work is ultimately what may betermed as ‘People’s Funds,’ where the political vision guides thecampaign or unds.
Endnotes
1 A detailed concept paper or this bulletin prepared by the Guest Editor is available upon request with her and ARROW. A shorter version o this editorial has been included in the Civil Society Forum (CSF) Bulletin No. 5 as part o ARROW’s interventions at the 4th UN LDC Conerence. Tis is available at www.arrow.org.my and www.ldcwatch.org. 2 While the term ‘citizenship’ reers to access o the citizens o a country to rights and entitlements constitutionally, it is also a sign o anactive democracy when these rights are attainable. However, the term citizenship needs to be universal in its values and not bound by borders. Citizenship is inclusive and includes both tangible and intangible rights.3 UNESCAP, ADB and UNDP. 2010. Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacic, Asia-Pacic MDG Report  2010/11. UN. http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/stream/asset/?asset_id=27849694 “MDGs in Asia Pacic.” Available at www.mdgasiapacic.org/node/125 www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3746,en_2649_34447_47515235_1_1_1_1,00.html 6 International Development Strategy or the Second United Nations Development Decade, UN General Assembly Resolution 2626 (XXV), October 24, 1970, para. 43. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUION/GEN/NR0/348/91/IMG/  NR034891.pd?OpenElement 7 www.oecd.org/document/35/0,3746,en_2649_34447_47515235_1_1_1_1,00.html 8 UNFPA. 2009. Revised Cost Estimates or the Implementation o the Programme o Action o the International Conerence onPopulation and Development: A Methodological Report. USA: UNFPA. Cited in Dennis, S. 2011. More Funding Needed or  International Reproductive Health. USA: Population Action International.9 O this, around US$30 billion is needed each year or sexual and reproductive health, which includes $6.7 billion or amily planning and US$23 billion or maternal and newborn health. HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment, basic research,data collection and policy analysis make up the remaining costs. Dennis, S. 2011. More Funding Needed or International Reproductive Health. Washington, DC, USA: Population Action International.10 CSF Bulletin No. 5, 13 May 2011, Istanbul , urkey. www.ldcwatch.org 11 WHO 2005 National Health Accounts, cited in Tanenthiran, S. & Racherla, S.J. 2009. Reclaiming and Redening Rights: ICPD+15: Status o Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Asia. Malaysia: Asian-Pacic Resource & Research Centre  or Women (ARROW). www.arrow.org.my/index.php/publications/researchamonitorin.html 
    e    d    i    t    o    r    i    a    l
By Shobha Raghuram,
Guest Editor, Independent Researcher, India.Email: shobha.raghuram@gmail.com
 
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Vol. 17 No. 1 2011
 Asian-Pacic Resource & Research Centre for Women (ARROW)www.arrow.org.my
    S    p    o    t    l    i    g    h    t
Civil society unding is raught with challenges that arenot always directly linked with the integrity and quality o deliverables. Te direction o unding ows is susceptibleto various actors, including the eorts to coordinate anddirect international aid through the Paris Declaration orAid Eectiveness, and the impact o the economic crisis ondonor organisation’s unding levels. Tese myriad actors alsoinclude the emergence o all-pervading issues, such as climatechange and the mass democratic uprisings in the Middle Eastand Northern Arica, as well as the election o conservativegovernments to power within countries that have historically invested in the long-term development o the human rights and women’s rights movements. Tere have also been changes driven by evolvingunderstanding o what delivers ‘results’—rom the promotiono the logical ramework in the early 1960s by the UnitedStates Agency or International Development (USAID)
1
to theresults-based management advocated by the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP) in the 1990s—leading tocivil society organisations having to learn and adapt to the use o these tools in describing the change they wish to create, or risk the loss o unding. Tese adaptations are orced to occur within a contexto chronic underunding, where both national and regional women’s and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR)organisations have struggled to earn enough stafng andoverhead costs or the continued implementation o the work that they do. While some projects adequately compensateor the stafng costs, resources or investment in institutionalstrengthening are not normally part o the accepted costs thatcan be charged to projects. Te rule o thumb on acceptablelevels o overhead costs per dollar o project unding has beena 30-70 ratio o overheads to programme costs or regionalorganisations, and a 40-60 ratio or national level work.
2
Tismeans that or every US$100,000 worth o project undingraised,
3
only US$30,000 can go to overhead costs. O thisUS$30,000, approximately US$20,000
4
goes to the direct salary costs o implementing sta, leaving US$10,000 or contributionto the manager’s salary, the executive director, the nance sta, theadministrative sta, and, i the organisation is ortunate to have aninormation and communications or monitoring and evaluationteams, to these sta as well. Yet all above sta are crucial to theproper implementation o the project. Moreover, the above doesnot yet take into account the costs o rental and administration;nor does it include Board meetings and annual nancial audits. Tough seldom unded, both are essential or sound governanceand nancial health and are required to be in place by unders. Tere is a need and the willingness to comply withcontinuous improvements in management and reportingmechanisms to various donor organisations. However,there is an assumption that adequate capacity exists andhas been suitably invested in, thereby enabling civil society organisations to continue to compete or unding. Tesepresumed capacities include systems in place or monitoring andevaluation, inormation management, nancial management,governance and accountability, human resource managementand retention o skills. As a result, even when women’s andSRHR organisations in the Asia-Pacic are able to win acall or proposals, they are oten unable to use any signicantcomponent o these unds to invest in long-term sustainability and organisational strengthening, leading to a depletion o theirrelative internal strength over time. Where they do exist, these organisational strengths emergeoten as a result o voluntary contributions o various levelso unpaid members. Many, i not all women’s rights activists,have been just that—activists rst and paid employees only 
A Tough Terrain:
Fnding for Womn’s and SRHR NGOs in th Asia-Pacic
   P   h  o   t  o   b  y   E   d  u  a  r   d  o   L   i  m  a   d  e   O   l   i  v  e   i  r  a
Funding gaps across the region have an adverse impact on the ability o civil society to push the agendaand monitor governments, aswell as on the achievement o  women’s health outcomes and rights, including sexual and reproductive rights.

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