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Thermal Stress Development in Concrete Pavements at Early Ages

Thermal Stress Development in Concrete Pavements at Early Ages

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HANSEN-MOHAMED-MOHR
THERMALSTRESSDEVELOPMENTINCONCRETEPAVEMENTSATEARLYAGES
WillHansen,AssociateProfessorAshrafR.Mohamed,ResearchFellowPhilMohr,GraduateStudentDepartmentofCivil
&
EnvironmentalEngineeringTheUniversityofMichiganABSTRACT
InternalstressesarepresentinPortlandcementconcretepavementatearlyagesduetorestrainedcurlingandaxialcontraction.Theriskofcrackinginthepavementislargelyassociatedwiththetemperatureandtensilestrengthdevelopmentoftheconcretemixtureasitcures.Thetemperaturedevelopmentisheavilyinfluencedbyheatreleasedduringcementhydration,thetemperatureoftheconcreteingredients,anddailyandseasonalfluctuationsinambienttemperature.Ithasbeenobservedthatthermalstressdevelopmentismostseverewhenthepeakintheheatdevelopedfromhydrationcoincideswithmaximumdailyambienttemperature.Thus,considerationshouldbegiventoplacingconcreteinthelateafternoonorevening,especiallyduringsummertimeplacingconditions.INTRODUCTION
It
iswellknownthatconcreteundergoesdimensionalchangesasitcuresduetotemperaturevariations.Asthehydrationprocesscommences,thedevelopedheatcausestheconcretetoexpand,whileuponcoolingtheconcretecontracts.Inconcretepavements,astheslabisrestrainedexternallybybothitsself-weightandsubgradefriction,stresseswilldevelopwithintheslab.Acommonpracticeistoinstallcontractionjointstocontrolthelocationofcracking.Theamountofaxialcontractionthatoccursisrelatedtotheheatdevelopedintheconcrete,thethermalexpansionpropertiesoftheconcreteconstituents,therestraintfrommovementprovidedbyfoundationfrictionandadjoiningslabs,anddryingshrinkage.Asthehydrationtakesplace,heatisdissipatedfromtheslabbothtothefoundationandtotheairabove.Becausetheambienttemperature'fluctuates,andbecauseheatisdissipatedmuchmorereadilytotheairthantothefoundation,thetemperaturedistributionthroughtheslabthicknessisnoteven.Atemperaturegradientdevelopswhichcausestheslabtocurl.Formanyyears,thetemperaturegradienthasbeenassumedtobelinear(1,2,3).However,measurementsofthetemperaturevariationthroughtheslabthicknessrevealahighlynon-lineardistribution(4).Recently,aclosedformsolutionhasbeendevelopedbyMohamedandHansen(5)forhandlingthenon-linearityofthetemperatureprofile.Thecontributionfrombothcontractionandcurlingcaninducesignificantstressesthroughtheslabthickness,especiallyatearlyageswhenconcretehasnotacquireditsfulltensilestrength.Thereexistmanyinternalandexternalfactorscontributingtotheearlyage(firstfewdaysafterplacement)temperaturedevelopment.Internalfactorsincludetheheatgeneratedfromhydrationofthecementandpozzolanicreactions,thethermalconductionpropertiesoftheconcreteingredients,andtheslabdimensions(particularlyitsthickness).Theexternalfactorsincludechangesinenvironmentalfactorssuchastheambientairtemperatureandtheunderlyingbasetemperature,solarradiation,windvelocity,andrelativehumidity(6,7).Theheatexchangebetweentheconcreteandtheenvironmentoccursthroughconduction,convectionandsolarradiation.Thetemperatureoftheconcreteandthesurroundingsatthetimeatwhichtheconcreteisplacedhaveasignificantimpactontheoveralltemperaturedevelopmentintheslab,andintumontheresultinginternalstresses.Furthermore,thetimeofdayofplacementwilldeterminewhetherthepeakinhydrationcoincideswith,orcounteractsthemaximumdailytemperature(8,9).
29
 
HANSEN-MOHAMED-MOHR
RESEARCHSIGNIFICANCEANDOBJECTIVE
Temperaturevariationwithinaconcretepavementslabatearlyageshasasignificantinfluenceontheslab'scrackingtendency.Duetotherestraintofferedbythesubgradeandtheslabweight,internalstressesdevelopasaresultofthesevariations.Insomecases,especiallyatearlyages,thesestressesarecomparabletothetensilestrengthofconcrete.Controllingthetemperatureandtimeofconcreteplacingmayresultinareductioninthecrackingtendencyofconcretepavement.Currently,pavementdesigndoesnotexplicitlyaccountforthermalstresses.However,earlycrackinghasbeenobservedinconcretepavementslabsplacedathightemperatures(>29.4
°c
(85of)).Forinstance,asectionofpavementonUS-23southofDundee,Michiganwasfoundtoexhibitcrackingwithinonemonthofopeningtotraffic.Thisroadwaywasplacedonawindy90
0
Fday.Coredsamplesfromtheseslabsshowedthatthesecrackswerelocatedwithinthetop5-7.5em(2-3in)oftheslab.Theobjectiveofthisinvestigationistoevaluatetheinternalthermalstressesthatoccurinaconcretepavementwithinthefirstfewdaysafterplacing.TheconcretemixdesignfromUS-23isused,andvariousplacingconditionsaresimulated.
RESEARCHAPPROACH
Theheatexchangebetweentheconcreteanditssurroundingsisacomplexprocess.Inthisstudyaheattransferanalysisprogram("Quadrel1.5"(10))isusedforpredictingtheconcretetemperatureprofileandmaturityversustimeforavarietyofplacementandenvironmentalconditions.Solarradiationeffectsarenotconsidered.Thesimulationprocessisbasedonaheatsignatureoftheconcretemix,whichhasbeenidentifiedthroughlaboratorymeasurementsusingadiabaticcalorimetry.Theconcretestrength(compressiveandsplittensile)developmentatearlyagesismeasuredinthelaboratory.Afterpredictingthetemperaturevariationthroughtheslabthicknessatdifferenttimesteps,thetemperaturegradientthroughthethicknessisdetermined.Asthetemperaturedistributionhasbeenfoundtobenon-linear,thenewlydevelopedmethodology(5)hasbeenusedtoevaluatethestressesinducedbysuchgradients.Strengthdevelopmentfromthelaboratory,adjustedforsimulatedconditionsusingthematurityfunction,arecomparedtothesestressestoexaminetheriskofcracking.
PREDICTIONOFTEMPERATUREPROFILES
Inordertopredicttemperatureprofilesforaconcretepavement,aconcretebatchwiththesamemixdesigniscastinthelaboratory,fromwhichadiabaticheatdevelopmentismeasured.Oncethisheatsignaturefortheconcretehasbeenobtained,fieldconditionssuchasslabthickness,temperaturecycles,andwindspeedareenteredasinputtoasimulationprogram,whichintumdevelopsthepredictedtemperatureprofileintheslabovertime.Asthisstudyutilizescommerciallyavailablesoftwaretosimulatethetemperatureprofiles,itisimportanttofirstverifywhetherthesoftwareissuitableforsimulationoftheconditionsthatareimposedinthestudy.Thisverificationwasdonethroughatwostageprocedure.First,theprogramwascomparedtoknownboundarycases.Forexample,todeterminewhethertheprogramaccuratelymeasurestheeffectsoftemperaturecycles,theslabthicknesswasreducedtonearzero,whichshouldcausetheslabtemperaturetovarysimilarlytotheairtemperature.Indeeditwasfoundthattheprogramprovidesaccurateresultswithrespecttothecasesinvestigatedinthisstep.Second,inordertodeterminetheaccuracyofthesimulationprogramcomparedtomeasureddata,atestslabsectionwascastinthelaboratory.Theslabwaswellinsulated,andcastonanaggregatebasetosimulatesimilarconditionstothoseinthefield.Thermocoupleswereplacedthroughthethicknessoftheslab.Figure1showsthedesignanddimensionsofthelaboratorytestslab.Theslabwasplacedundercontrolledtemperatureandhumidityconditions,andtemperaturemeasurementswererecordedevery15minutesfor3days.Thetemperaturewascycledovera24hourperiodfrom15.6-26.7°C(60to80F)tosimulatefieldconditions.Relativehumiditywasheldconstantat50%.Concurrently,theadiabaticheatdevelopmentforthesamemixwasmeasuredasinputtothecomputersimulation.Computersimulationswererunonthesamemixforthesameconditions,andtheresultswerecompared.AscanbeseenfromFigure2,verycloseresultshavebeenfoundbetweenthemeasuredandsimulatedtemperaturevariations.Thesmalldifferencesbetweenthemeasuredandpredictedmightbeattributednotonlytothefactthatsimulationdoesnotaccountforallfactorsaffectingheattransfer,butalsototheimperfectboundaryconditionsintheexperimentalslab.Basedonthisfinding,thecomputersimulationtechniquehasbeenusedfortheremainderofthestudy.
30
 
HANSEN-MOHAMED-MOHR
PredictionofThermalStressesandConcreteStrength
Thecombinationofthehydrationandambienttemperaturesleadtotheearlytemperatureriseintheconcrete.Itissomewherenearthepeaktemperaturerisethatfmalsetoccurs,andstressescanbegintodevelopintheslab.Theformationofinternalstressesintheslabfollowsthroughthemechanismsofuniformcontractionandtemperaturecurling.Figure3depictstheinternaltemperatureloadingintheconcrete,whichresultsinthedevelopmentofstressesintheslab.Theuniformcontractionoftheslabispartiallyrestrainedbybasecoursefriction,asdescribedbyOkamoto(11).Inthisstudy,therestraintfrommovementiscalculatedfromamodifiedformofthejointopeningequationpresentedbyHuang(12),andinessenceaccountsforthedeformationtheslabwouldundergoinspaceminustheamountthejointactuallyopens.Whensimplified,Equation1givesrestrainedportionofthemovementduetouniformcontraction.
LlL/L=(
l-C)atLlT
12
[Eq.1]inwhichLlListherestrainedmovementoftheslabduetotemperaturechange;Listheslablength;Cistheadjustmen!~actorduetoslab-subbasefriction;atisthecoefficientofthermalexpansionoftheconcretetakenaslxlO-5
JOC
(5.5xl0
jOF);
andLlTisthechangeintemperature.Thisdeterminesthestrainintheslab.ElasticmodulusiscalculatedfromstrengthusingtheACIequation
E=4.73.J!:,
[Eq.2]whereEinGPaand
I,
nMPa
(E
=
57,
oooR
inpsiunits).Theslabisassumedtobehaveinalinearelasticfashion,andstressesduetouniformcontractionarecalculatedonthatbasis.Thesecondmechanismforstressdevelopmentistherestrainedcurlingintheslab.Theslabtriestocurlupwardasthetopcoolsmorerapidlythanthebottom.Atthesametime,theslab'sweightrestrictsthismovement.
It
hasbeendocumented(e.g.Thompson(4»andwillbeshownthatthetemperaturegradientsarehighlynon-linearthroughthethicknessoftheslab.Whiletraditionalanalysisoftemperaturegradientinducedstressisbasedonlineargradientanalysis,ithasbeenshown(5)thatthistypeofanalysismaysignificantlyunderestimatethestressdevelopmentthroughthethicknessoftheslab.Forthisreason,therecentlydevelopedclosedformsolutionbyMohamedandHansen(5)isbeingusedinthiscontextwhichtakesintoaccountthenon-lineareffectsoftemperaturegradientsthroughtheslabthickness.Theconcretestrengthdevelopmentbeginsatfinalset,andcontinuesasthehydrationreactionprogresses.Thisprocessishighlyinfluencedbycuringconditions.Theuseofthematurityfunctionconceptallowsthestrengthdevelopmentundervariousfieldconditionstoberelatedbacktoastandardlaboratorycondition.Inthisstudy,alaboratorybatchwascastandtestedtodevelopthestandardmaturityconditionforthefieldmixdesign.Thematurityfunctionisthenusedtorelatethelaboratorystrengthdevelopmenttothevariousbatchtemperaturesandplacingtimesinquestion.
REFERENCECASE:US-23MICHIGAN
Inordertoinvestigatetheeffectoftimeandtemperatureofplacementonthecrackingtendencyofconcretepavement,areferencecaseisneeded.ThereferencecaseinthisstudyisasectionofpavementonUS-23southofDundee,Michigan.
It
hasbeenfoundtoexhibitcrackingwithinonemonthofopeningtotraffic.Thisroadwaywasplacedonawindy32
°c
(90OF)day.Thus,allparametersinthisstudyarelimitedtotheconditionsthatexistedinthiscase.Forinstance,thetemperaturehasbeenvariedbetween21-35
°c
(70-95OF),whichrepresentsatypicaltemperaturevariationinthatlocation.Furthermore,thefrictioncoefficientCinEq.(1)hasbeensetto0.8,resemblingthatrecordedforthetypeofbasecourseinthereferencestudy.Theslabdimensionsare3.66x8.25m(12x27ft).
SimulationofPlacingConditionsfortheReferenceCase
Onceithasbeenestablishedthatthesimulationsoftwareprovidesacceptableresults,theconditionsinthefieldatUS-23canbesimulatedtodeterminethecrackingsusceptibilityofthepavementduringthefirstfewdaysafterplacement.Thisfieldconditionwillbereferredtoascase1,andisshowninTable
1.
Forthisandallplacingconditionsstudied,a26.7em(10.5in.)slabthicknessand12.5
kmIh
(7.5mph)windspeedwereused.
31

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