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Table Of Contents

Executive Summary
Table 1. Worldwide Biomass Pyrolysis Units
2. Production of Bio-oil
2.1 Heat Transfer Requirements
2.2 Biomass Feedstock Preparation
2.3 Reactor Designs Capable of Achieving Fast Pyrolysis Conditions
2.3.1 Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Figure 1. Process Schematic for a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Design
2.3.2 Circulating Fluidizing Bed
Figure 2. Process Schematic for a Circulating Fluidized Bed Pyrolysis Design
2.3.3 Ablative Pyrolysis
Figure 3. Schematic of the NREL Vortex Reactor Fast Pyrolysis Reactor Design
2.3.4 Vacuum Pyrolysis
2.3.5 Rotating Cone Pyrolysis Reactor
2.4 Pyrolysis Vapor (Bio-oil) Recovery
2.5 Char and Particulate Separation
3. Properties of Bio-oil
3.1 Chemical Nature of Bio-oil
Table 2. Properties of Bio-oil from Various Feedstocks
3.2 Physical Properties of Bio-oil (Stability)
3.3 Physical Properties (Re-vaporization)
3.4 Environmental / Health
4. Uses for Bio-oil
4.1 Combustion
4.2 Diesel Engines
4.3 Combustion Turbines
4.4 Bio-Oil Standards and Specifications
Table 3. Proposed Specifications for Various Grades of Bio-oil [51]
4.5 Upgrading Bio-oil Properties to Higher Value Products
5. Prior Investigations of Bio-Oil Production Costs
Table 4. Bio-oil Production Cost/Selling Price
6. Wood Chip Pyrolysis Facility Economic Analysis
6.1 Design Basis and Process Description
Figure 5. Fast Pyrolysis Block Flow Diagram
Table 5. Design Basis
6.4 Economic Basis
6.5 Capital Costs
6.6 Operating Costs
6.7 Economic Analysis
6.8 Capital Cost Results
Table 9. Installed Equipment Costs
Table 10. Total Project Investment
6.9 Operating Cost Results
6.10 Financial Analysis Results
6.11 Discussion
6.12 Sensitivity Studies
6.13 Upgrading of Crude Bio-Oil
6.14 Limitations of the Analysis
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
7.1 Current State-of-the-Art for Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass
Table 12. Worldwide Current Biomass Pyrolysis Operating Plants
7.2 Recommendations for Advancing Fast Pyrolysis Technology
References
Appendix A: ASPEN Plus® Model Implementation / Mass Balances
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37779 NREL

37779 NREL

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Published by Thaveep Ratanakuha

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Published by: Thaveep Ratanakuha on Mar 07, 2012
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03/07/2012

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