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009 Tawbah

009 Tawbah

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Published by: kesh2421 on Nov 26, 2008
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10/16/2011

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1
Revealed in Makkah
َ ْُْَهَ َِا َِإ ِِُَرَو ِا َ ٌةَءََ  َِآِْُْا
9:1 Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared)from Allah and His Messenger to those of theMushrikin (idolaters), with whom you made atreaty.
 
ُْَ ْُَأ ْاُَْاَو ٍُْﺵَأ َََْرَأ ِضْرا ِ ْاُِَ  َِِـَْا ىِْُ َا نَأَو ِا يِِْُ 
9:2 So travel freely (O Mushrikin) for four months(as you will) throughout the land, but know thatyou cannot escape (from the punishment of) Allah;and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers.
Why there is no Basmalah in the Beginning of This Surah
This honorable
Surah
was one of the last
Surahs
to berevealed to the Messenger of Allah.
 
2
Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' said,"The last
Ayah
to be revealed was,
ِْُِْُ ُا ِُََُْَْَ  ِَـََْا
(They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allah directs(thus) about Al-Kalalah.''
(
4:176
)
, while the last
Surah
 to be revealed was
Bara'ah
.''The Basmalah was not mentioned in the beginning of this
Surah
because the Companions did not write it in the completecopy of the Qur'an (
Mushaf 
) they collected, following theCommander of the faithful, Uthman bin Affan, may Allah bepleased with him.The first part of this honorable
Surah
was revealed to theMessenger of Allah when he returned from the battle of Tabuk,during the
Hajj
season, which the Prophet thought aboutattending. But he remembered that the idolators would stillattend that
Hajj
, as was usual in past years, and that theyperform
Tawaf 
around the House while naked. He disliked toassociate with them and sent Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah bepleased with him, to lead
Hajj
that year and show the peopletheir rituals, commanding him to inform the idolators that theywould not be allowed to participate in
Hajj
after that season. Hecommanded him to proclaim,
ِُﺱَرَو ِّا َٌةءاََ 
(Freedom from(all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger...),to the people.When Abu Bakr had left, the Messenger sent Ali bin Abu Talib tobe the one to deliver this news to the idolators on behalf of theMessenger, for he was the Messenger's cousin. We will mentionthis story later.
Publicizing the Disavowal of the Idolators
Allah said,
ِِُَرَو ِّا َ ٌةءاََ ...
 
Freedom from obligations from Allah and His Messenger,is a declaration of freedom from all obligationsfrom Allah and His Messenger,
...َِآِْُْا َ َهَ َِا َِإ
١
 
 
3
ٍُْﺵَأ َََْرَأ ِضْرَا ِ ْاُِَ ...
 
to those of the
Mushrikin
, with whom you made atreaty. So travel freely (
Mushrikin
) for four months (asyou will) throughout the land,This
Ayah
refers to idolators who had indefinitetreaties and those, whose treaties with Muslimsended in less than four months. The terms of these treaties were restricted to four monthsonly. As for those whose term of peace ended ata specific date later (than the four months), thentheir treaties would end when their terms ended,no matter how long afterwards, for Allah said,
ْِِﺕُَِإ ْُهَْَْِْَِإ ْاِﺕََ 
(So fulfill their treaty forthem until the end of their term). (9:4)So whoever had a covenant with Allah'sMessenger then it would last until its periodexpired, this was reported from Muhammad binKa`b Al-Qurazi and others.We will also mention a
Hadith
on this matter. AbuMa`shar Al-Madani said that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and several others said,"The Messenger of Allah sent Abu Bakr to lead the
Hajj
rituals on the ninth year (of 
Hijrah
). He alsosent Ali bin Abi Talib with thirty or forty
Ayat
 from
Bara'ah
(
At-Tawbah
), and he recited themto the people, giving the idolators four monthsduring which they freely move about in the land.He recited these
Ayat
on the day of 
Arafah
 (ninth of 
Dhul-Hijjah
). The idolators were giventwenty more days (till the end) of 
Dhul-Hijjah
,
Muharram
,
Safar
,
Rabi Al-Awwal
and ten daysfrom
Rabi Ath-Thani
.He proclaimed to them in their camping areas,`No
Mushrik
will be allowed to perform
Hajj
 after this year, nor a naked person to perform
Tawaf 
around the House.'''So Allah said,

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