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Report in Cell BiologyII

Report in Cell BiologyII

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Published by: Genessa Agustin Buenafe on Mar 08, 2012
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Buenafe, GenessaMLS 2B
1 
Report in Cell Biology
Objectives: Differentiate Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription
 Basic differences: Prokayotic Transcription Eukaryotic Transcription Place of occurence
cytoplasm nucleus
Type mRNA formed 
Polycistronic
mRNA Most mRNAs are
monocistronic
 (generally one gene for oneprotein)
Transcription and Transcription
Transcription and translation of most prokaryotes aresimultaneous.Transcription and translation of most eukaryotes are spatiallyseparated.
 Need for ATP
No ATP Requires ATP for initiation
Transcription in eukaryotic cells involves the same four stages (1)
Binding of RNA Polymerase and localDNA unwinding
(2)
Initiation of RNA Synthesis
(3)
Elongation of RNA
and (4)
Termination of RNASynthesis,
but the process in eukaryotes is more complicated than that in bacteria. The main differences are asfollows:
I.
 
Three different RNA polymerases transcribe the nuclear DNA of eukaryotes. Each synthesizes one ormore classes of RNA.Prokaryotic Transcription Eukaryotic Transcription
Bacterial cells have a single kind of RNApolymerase that synthesizes all three majorclasses of RNA
 — 
mRNA, tRNA, andrRNA.
 There are three types of RNA polymerases:
a.
 
RNA Polymerase I
 – 
 
is responsible for synthesizing an RNAmolecule that serves as a precursor for three of the four types of rRNA found in eukaryotic ribosomes
b.
 
RNA Polymerase II -
synthesizes precursors to mRNA, the class of RNA moleculesthat code for proteins.
c.
 
RNA Polymeras III -
it synthesizes a variety of small RNAs,including tRNA precursors and the smallest type of ribosomal RNA,5S rRNA.
II.
 
Eukaryotic promoters are more varied than bacterial promoters.Prokaryotic Transcription Eukaryotic Transcription
In prokaryotic transcription, specific DNA sequences,called
promoters, found at the beginnings of genes
which the basic function is to promote the binding of RNA Polymerase to specific DNA sequence. Thepromoters used by all the eukaryotic RNA polymerasesmust be recognized and bound by transcription factorsbefore the RNA polymerase molecule can bind to DNA.
There are different types of promoters employed forthe three polymerases, and there is also a greatvariation within each type
 — 
especially among theones for protein-coding genes. (Furthermore, someeukaryotic promoters are actually
locateddownstream from the transcription startpoint.
)
Three classes of promoters are found in eukaryotic nuclear genes,one for each type of RNA Polymerase:a.
 
The promoter used by RNA polymerase I
(
that is, the promoter of the transcription unit that producesthe precursor for the three largest rRNAs
) has two parts:
a.1 core promoter
: (
smallest set of DNA sequences able to direct the accurate initiation of transcription by RNA polymera
se) extends into the nucleotide sequence to be transcribed.: is sufficient for proper initiation of transcription.
a.2 upstream control element:
makes transcription more efficient which for RNA polymerase I is afairly long sequence similar (
though not identical
) to the core promoter. Attachment of transcriptionfactors to both parts of the promoter facilitates the binding of RNA polymerase I to the core promoterand enables it to initiate transcription at the start point.
 
Buenafe, GenessaMLS 2B
2 
b.
 
The promoter used by RNA polymerase II:
at least four types of DNA sequences are involved incore promoter function. These four elements are :(1)
initiator (Inr)
sequence:
surrounding the transcription startpoint (which is often an A, as in bacteria)(2)
TATA box:
which consists of a consensus sequence of TATA followed by two or three more A’s,
usually located about 25 nucleotides upstream from the startpoint.(3)
TFIIB recognition element (BRE):
located slightly upstream of the TATA box.(4)
Downstream promoter element (DPE)
located about 30 nucleotides downstream from the startpoint.
These four elements are organized into two general types of core promoters:b.1 TATA-driven promoters:
contain an Inr sequence and a TATA box with or without an associatedBRE
b.2 DPE-driven promoters:
contain DPE and Inr sequences but no TATA box or BRE.
Note:
 
TATA-driven promoters are also present in archaea, a key piece of evidence supporting the idea that in some ways,archaea resemble eukaryotes more closely than they resemble bacteria
 
 
By itself, a core promoter (TATA-driven or DPE driven) is capable of supporting only a basal (low) level of transcription. However, most protein-coding genes have additional short sequences further upstream
 — 
upstreamcontrol elements
 —that improve the promoter’s efficiency.
c.
 
The promoter used by RNA polymerase III:
molecule uses promoters that are entirely downstream
of the transcription unit’s startpoint when transcribing genes for tRNAs and 5S rRNA.
c.1 tRNA promoter:
has consensus sequences called box A and box B.
c.2 5S-rRNA
 
promoters:
have box A (positioned farther from the startpoint than in tRNA-genepromoters) and another critical sequence, called box C.
(an upstream promoter that is used for thesynthesis of other kinds of small RNA molecules.)
III.
 
Binding of eukaryotic RNA polymerases to DNA requires theparticipation of additional proteins, called transcription factors.ProkaryoticTranscriptionEukaryotic Transcription
It has the dissociablesubunit called the
sigma (
σ
) factor
whichis required to ensureinitiation at the propersites within a DNAmolecule.
 
Eukaryotic transcription factors are notpart of the RNA polymerase molecule.
 Rather, some of them must bind to DNAbefore RNA polymerase can bind to thepromoter and initiate transcription. Thus,
transcription factors
, rather than
RNApolymerase itself 
, determine the specificityof transcription in eukaryotes.A
general transcription factor
is a protein that is always requiredfor an RNA polymerase molecule to bind to its promoter and initiateRNA synthesis, regardless of the identity of the gene involved.Eukaryotes have many such transcription factors; their namesusually include
―TF‖ (for transcription factor),
 
a roman numeral
 identifying polymerase they aid, and a capital letter that identifies eachindividual factor (for example, TFIIA, TFIIB, and so forth).
 

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