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Sistemas Gestores de Bases de Datos

# Sistemas Gestores de Bases de Datos

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Published by: cfgmesi9097 on Nov 26, 2008
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03/19/2013

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
Profesor: Rafael Lozano Luján

I
NTRODUCCIÓN A LOS
S
ISTEMAS DE
I
NFORMACIÓN Y A LAS
B
ASES DE
D
ATOS
.7

Concepto de Información.................................................................................................7

Sistema de Información....................................................................................................7





Aplicación de las TIC a los SI.........................................................................................10

De los sistemas tradicionales de ficheros a las bases de datos....................................11

Introducción a las Bases de Datos.................................................................................11

Ventajas e inconvenientes de las Bases de Datos frete a los ficheros clásicos............12

Características de las Bases de Datos..........................................................................13

Visiones de los datos en las bases de datos.................................................................15

Bases de datos y Sistemas de Gestión de bases de datos...........................................17

Principales funciones de un SGBD................................................................................18

!"!#!\$

!#! \$

!%\$

Componentes de un SGBD............................................................................................19

R
EPRESENTACIÓN DE PROBLEMAS DEL MUNDO REAL
.

L
OS
M
ODELOS DE
D
ATOS
........................................................................................................................22

Los problemas del mundo real.......................................................................................22

&'!(

#!#'(

)#'*

Los Modelos de Datos....................................................................................................26

'+

&+

&,' -

E
L
M
ODELO
E
NTIDAD
-

I
NTERRELACIÓN
.......................................................30

Introducción....................................................................................................................30

Estática del Modelo Entidad Interrelación...................................................................30

(\$

!(\$

(*

Semántica de las interrelaciones....................................................................................34

%#(*

#./"!(0

Generalización y Herencia.............................................................................................36

&12(

Interrelaciones Exclusivas..............................................................................................39

Representación de las Restricciones en el ME-R..........................................................40

Dinámica del Modelo Entidad – Interrelación.................................................................40

E
L
M
ODELO
R
ELACIONAL
..............................................................................41

Estructura del Modelo Relacional...................................................................................42

/)'*(

"!"!**

%!*0

%3 *0

Restricciones..................................................................................................................46

4*

*

Los valores nulos en el modelo relacional.....................................................................48

%#3*

Normalización de Relaciones.........................................................................................49

#"0\$

5!0(

Las 12 reglas de Codd para los sistemas relacionales..................................................58

(
T
RADUCCIÓN DEL
M
ODELO
E
NTIDAD
-

I
NTERRELACIÓN AL
M
ODELO
R
ELACIONAL
..............................................................................................................60

Preparación de los esquemas conceptuales..................................................................60

!'6#

!'#\$

Transformación de los esquemas conceptuales............................................................62

7"!# 

7"!#!(

7"!#!4

7"!#!448

7"#9

7"!#!".3-

Eliminación de las relaciones jerárquicas......................................................................70

Álgebra Relacional.........................................................................................................78

:##3

:#3*

:#30

:#3

SQL................................................................................................................88

Lenguaje estructurado de consultas SQL......................................................................88

;

<&1

Tipos de datos (ORACLE)..............................................................................................89

Tipos de datos (MySQL).................................................................................................91

Operadores SQL............................................................................................................92

:#=-

:#!-

:#!-(

&3>?@&&-(

Consultas simples..........................................................................................................94

&&%7-*

%-0

%-0

!ABC-

#-

!"%D;-8

7#!AEFGHFGFGEFHFHEC -8

7>7D? -

7#1A?C-

7##!&I--

73A?@&&C--

:!%:J \$

Consultas sumarias......................................................................................................100

%A@+C\$\$

%#A)KC\$\$

!3.\$\$

%3A%:@?7C\$

K?@&&/"\$

!"#A7?%7C \$(

Consultas agrupadas....................................................................................................103

%'62#%;)K?\$0

Subconsultas................................................................................................................106

7#!'AEFGHFGFGEFHFHEC\$-

7#1A?C\$-

7.AL7C\$\$

7"A)?J/)&&C \$\$

'\$\$\$

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