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Gsm Gprs and Umts

Gsm Gprs and Umts

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Published by: manisha.kalita9253 on Nov 27, 2008
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09/23/2010

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Tutorials'Radio> Wireless: GSM, GPRS and UMTS 
Mobile phone: GSM, GPRS and UMTS
The mobile telephone systems can be classified into different generations dependthe degree of technical evolution of the same. The key features of each of thesegenerations are summarized below.
First generation (1G)
It is the oldest of all, also known in Spain as TACS (Total Access CommunicationsSystem), and encompasses all those analog mobile communications technologies.TACS system is a communication system for mobile cellular duplex in the 900 MHband, with the capacity to transmit voice but not data. The precursor to the TACsystem was the system AMPS (American Mobile Phone System), developed in theby Bell Laboratories and put into service in the first half of the 80s. SubsequentlAMPS system was adapted to European requirements for the UK (particularly witrespect to frequency bands and channel) and put into service in 1985 under theof the TACS system. Since the TACS standard only defines the radio access protbetween a mobile station and its corresponding base station, and does not coveraspects relating to the management of mobility, came across a number of differestandards in different countries NTT-MTS (Japan ), MNT (Scandinavia) and C450(Germany), with the corresponding problems of incompatibility. It is now obsoletwill soon disappear.
The second generation (2G)
The limitations of the first generation of mobile telephony led to thedevelopment of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). GSMis a digital technology whose first feature is the transmission of voice,but it also allows data transmission at low speed: 9.6 kbit / s. Thisspeed is clearly insufficient when compared to the 56 kbit / s whichallows a conventional modem Internet access through the phone line, yetit has allowed the absolute success of the service for sending shortmessages (SMS), surpassing by far the best expectations that theoperators could have imagined. This fact has opened a huge marketunknown to date and will be enhanced with future generations of mobiletelephony. The European GSM system operates in around 900 MHz,while also emerged a variant known as DCS (Digital Cellular System)who works at 1800 MHz and whose goal is to provide greater capacity in urban arUnlike the system TACS, GSM defines a complete system that includes not only ta complete network architecture, which allows for the development of a multitudGSM standard. Although prepared for data transmission, GSM is a standard desiTherefore, the original concept of deriving a standard set of limitations for applicatransmission, such as: establishment of the slow connection (system-oriented cosymmetry of the link (same bandwidth for each direction of communication), cost 
Second generation and a half (2.5G)
This includes all those digital mobile communications technologies that enablegreater data transmission capacity and which emerged as a precursor to 3G.Mobile phone operators in Europe and the United States began moving to 2.5G
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in 2001, while Japan took the leap directly from 2G to 3G. One such technologyis 2.5G GPRS (General Packet Radio System), based on packet transmission andchannels are shared among different users in a dynamic way. GPRS coexists witthe infrastructure deployed in it, but offering the user a more efficient service carcommunications, especially in the case of access to IP networks like the Internet.theoretical speed that can reach GPRS is 171.2 kbit / s (about 18 times higher thspeed experienced by the user in practice is influenced by various factors and cankbit / s in the downlink and 9.6 kbit / s on the rise. The main advantages are GPaddition to a higher speed transmission, connection and charging for traffic, makiWAP services, Internet access (Web browsing, FTP, e - mail) and access to enterother hand, HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) is a specification of the Gstandardized by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) in Febrfrom 1999. With this technology, the number of channels used in GSM equivalendata communication is variable, allowing transmission speeds of up to 57.6 kbit /HSCSD is that investment to be implemented is minimal, although it has a disadvusers, paid for by the use of each channel. Finally, technology EDGE (EnhancedEvolution) is another of the development of GSM networks, theoretically allowingkbit / s. This is a technology that improves the bandwidth of data transmission ibe regarded as a precursor to UMTS. In fact, EDGE and UMTS are complementartogether may give support to the needs of the operators to achieve global coverageneration networks.
Third-generation (3G)
3G technologies are contained within the IMT-2000 (International MobileTelecommunications-2000) of the ITU, which can be regarded as the guide tomark the common points that must be met to achieve the goal of globalroaming, ie that a 3G terminal user can communicate with any 3G network inthe world. The services offered by 3G technologies are basically: Internetaccess, broadband services, international roaming and interoperability. Butfundamentally, these systems allow the development of multimediaenvironments for the transmission of video and images in real time,encouraging the emergence of new applications and services such asvideoconferencing or electronic commerce. Precisely UMTS (Universal MobileTelecommunications System) is one of the members of this family of IMT-2000standard. Among the attributes of UMTS can be highlighted: virtualconnectivity to the network all the time, different forms of pricing, asymmetric badown, setting the quality of service (QoS), integration of technology and standarnetworks, customized services environment, and many others. In terms of dataof 3G technologies, you can set different work environments, even up to 2 Mbit /operation, such as the environment inside an office. This capability is far superiotechnologies, enabling the development of multimedia genuine.
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