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Engineering Composites

Engineering Composites

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 ENGINEERINGCOMPOSITEMATERIALS
Bryan Harris
The Institute of Materials, London
1999
 
CONTENTS
1 THE NATURE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS.......................................................................5
1.1
 
W
HAT ARE
C
OMPOSITES
?..............................................................................................................................5
 
1.2
 
C
ONVENTIONAL
M
ATERIALS AND THEIR
L
IMITATIONS
..................................................................................6
 
1.3
 
S
TRONG
F
IBRES
..............................................................................................................................................7
 
1.3.1
 
Glass fibres..........................................................................................................................................8
 
1.3.2
 
Carbon fibres.......................................................................................................................................8
 
1.3.3
 
Silicon carbide.....................................................................................................................................9
 
1.3.4
 
 Alumina and alumina/silica compounds............................................................................................10
 
1.3.5
 
Organic Fibres ..................................................................................................................................10
 
1.3.6 
 
Styles of reinforcement ......................................................................................................................11
 
1.4
 
T
HE SCOPE FOR REINFORCEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL MATERIALS
................................................................12
 
1.4.1
 
Functions of the matrix......................................................................................................................12
 
1.4.2
 
 Metals................................................................................................................................................13
 
1.4.3
 
Polymeric materials...........................................................................................................................13
 
1.4.4
 
Glasses, ceramics and cement...........................................................................................................14
 
1.4.5
 
Carbon...............................................................................................................................................15
 
1.5
 
R
EFERENCES TO CHAPTER
1.........................................................................................................................15
 
1.5.1
 
General bibliography ........................................................................................................................16 
 
1.5.2
 
Sources of data..................................................................................................................................17 
 
2 MAKING COMPOSITE MATERIALS....................................................................................18
2.1
 
T
HE COMBINING OF MATERIALS
...................................................................................................................18
 
2.2
 
T
HE
I
NTERFACE
...........................................................................................................................................19
 
2.3
 
M
ANUFACTURING PROCESSES
......................................................................................................................20
 
2.3.1
 
Polymer-matrix composites...............................................................................................................20
 
2.3.2
 
 Metal-matrix composites ...................................................................................................................22
 
2.3.3
 
Ceramic-matrix composites...............................................................................................................23
 
2.3.4
 
 Hybrid composites.............................................................................................................................24
 
2.4
 
D
EFECTS IN MANUFACTURED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES
...............................................................................25
 
2.5
 
M
ETHODS OF NON
-
DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION FOR POLYMER COMPOSITES
.................................................28
 
2.5.1
 
Optical inspection..............................................................................................................................28
 
2.5.2
 
 Radiographic methods.......................................................................................................................28
 
2.5.3
 
Thermal imaging................................................................................................................................28
 
2.5.4
 
Ultrasonic techniques........................................................................................................................29
 
2.5.5
 
Optical fibre sensors..........................................................................................................................29
 
2.5.6 
 
 Microwave methods...........................................................................................................................30
 
2.5.7 
 
 Dynamic mechanical analysis...........................................................................................................30
 
2.5.8
 
 Acoustic emission methods................................................................................................................31
 
2.6
 
T
HE USE OF COMPOSITES
..............................................................................................................................31
 
2.7
 
R
EFERENCES TO CHAPTER
2.........................................................................................................................31
 
3 ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF FIBRE COMPOSITES.............................................................33
3.1
 
S
IMPLE MICROMECHANICAL MODELS
...........................................................................................................33
 
3.2
 
T
HE
H
ALPIN
-T
SAI EQUATIONS
.....................................................................................................................36
 
3.3
 
T
HE COMPRESSION MODULUS
.......................................................................................................................38
 
3.4
 
T
HE ANISOTROPIC PROPERTIES OF A THIN LAMINA
.......................................................................................39
 
3.5
 
O
RIENTATION
-
DEPENDENCE OF THE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL LAMINA
...........................42
 
3.6
 
M
ULTI
-
PLY LAMINATES
................................................................................................................................44
 
3.7
 
S
HORT
-
FIBRE COMPOSITES
...........................................................................................................................48
 
3.8
 
H
YBRID COMPOSITES
...................................................................................................................................51
 
3.9
 
R
ESIDUAL STRAINS
......................................................................................................................................54
 
3.10
 
T
EXTILE COMPOSITES
..............................................................................................................................56
 
3.11
 
P
LIANT COMPOSITES
................................................................................................................................58
 
3.12
 
R
EFERENCES TO CHAPTER
3....................................................................................................................59
 
4 THE STRENGTH OF FIBRE COMPOSITES................................................................................61
 
4.1
 
T
ENSILE STRENGTH
......................................................................................................................................61
 
4.1.1
 
Unidirectional continuous-fibre composites......................................................................................61
 
4.1.2
 
The problem of the strength of brittle fibres......................................................................................63
 
4.1.3
 
Progressive damage and failure in unidirectional composites..........................................................65
 
4.1.4
 
Calculation of the tensile strength of a unidirectional composite.....................................................67 
 
4.1.5
 
Transverse strength ...........................................................................................................................69
 
4.1.6 
 
Orientation-dependence of composite strength.................................................................................71
 
4.1.7 
 
The strengths of multi-ply laminates..................................................................................................72
 
4.1.8
 
Short-fibre composites.......................................................................................................................75
 
4.1.9
 
 Hybrid composites.............................................................................................................................79
 
4.2
 
C
OMPRESSION STRENGTH
.............................................................................................................................80
 
4.2.1
 
Compression strength after impact....................................................................................................84
 
4.3
 
S
HEAR STRENGTH
........................................................................................................................................85
 
4.3.1
 
The shear strength of the interfacial bond.........................................................................................87 
 
4.4
 
F
LEXURAL STRENGTH
..................................................................................................................................92
 
4.5
 
F
AILURE CRITERIA FOR COMPLEX STRESSES
.................................................................................................93
 
4.6
 
T
HE STRENGTH OF CERAMIC
-
MATRIX COMPOSITES
......................................................................................94
 
4.7
 
R
EFERENCES TO CHAPTER
4.........................................................................................................................96
 
5 FRACTURE AND TOUGHNESS OF COMPOSITES............................................................99
5.1
 
S
TRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF COMPOSITES FAILURE
...........................................................................................99
 
5.1.1
 
Fracture formalisms..........................................................................................................................99
 
5.2
 
F
RACTURE PROCESSES IN COMPOSITES
.......................................................................................................100
 
5.2.1
 
 Matrix effects...................................................................................................................................100
 
5.2.2
 
Fibre effects.....................................................................................................................................101
 
5.2.3
 
Simple fibre/matrix addition effects.................................................................................................101
 
5.3
 
T
OUGHNESS DERIVING FROM COMPOSITE ACTION
......................................................................................102
 
5.3.1
 
Toughening mechanisms in fibre-reinforced plastics......................................................................102
 
5.3.2
 
Toughness of hybrid composites......................................................................................................111
 
5.3.3
 
Toughness of laminated structures..................................................................................................112
 
5.4
 
T
OUGHNESS OF PRACTICAL REINFORCED PLASTIC LAMINATES
...................................................................115
 
5.4.1
 
Short-fibre composites.....................................................................................................................117 
 
5.4.2
 
 Design of damage-tolerant composites ...........................................................................................118
 
5.5
 
T
OUGHNESS OF CERAMIC
-
MATRIX COMPOSITES
.........................................................................................118
 
5.5.1
 
 Matrix cracking ...............................................................................................................................119
 
5.5.2
 
Fibre bridging..................................................................................................................................119
 
5.5.3
 
Fibre pull-out...................................................................................................................................120
 
5.6
 
A
PPLICATION OF FRACTURE MECHANICS TO COMPOSITES
..........................................................................121
 
5.6.1
 
Strength of notched composites and notch sensitivity .....................................................................121
 
5.6.2
 
The application of fracture mechanics.................................................................................121
 
5.6.3
 
 Application to specific composites...................................................................................................122
 
5.7
 
C
ONCLUSION
..............................................................................................................................................125
 
5.8
 
R
EFERENCES TO CHAPTER
5.......................................................................................................................127
 
6. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF FIBRE COMPOSITES...........................................................130
6.1
 
I
NTRODUCTION
..........................................................................................................................................130
 
6.2
 
D
AMAGE IN
C
OMPOSITES
...........................................................................................................................131
 
6.2.1
 
 Definition of failure and experimental scatter.................................................................................132
 
6.3
 
R
EVIEW OF
S
OME
C
LASSICAL
F
ATIGUE
P
HENOMENA
.................................................................................132
 
6.3.1
 
Stress/life curves..............................................................................................................................132
 
6.3.2
 
Constant-life diagrams....................................................................................................................133
 
6.3.3
 
Statistical aspects of the analysis of fatigue data............................................................................133
 
6.3.4
 
Cumulative damage laws.................................................................................................................135
 
6.5
 
F
ATIGUE OF
R
EINFORCED
P
LASTICS
...........................................................................................................136
 
6.4.1
 
Constant-stress fatigue curves.........................................................................................................136 
 
6.4.2
 
 Materials factors affecting fatigue behaviour of reinforced plastics...............................................139
 
6.4.3
 
Other factors affecting the fatigue of reinforced plastics................................................................143
 
6.4.4
 
 Damage accumulation and residual strength.....................................................................148
 
6.4.5
 
Fatigue under conditions of variable stress: block loading............................................................151
 

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