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Emf Theory d 3

# Emf Theory d 3

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MIT Open CourseWare -- Creative Commons, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike
MIT Open CourseWare -- Creative Commons, Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike

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03/11/2012

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MIT OpenCourseWarehttp://ocw.mit.edu
Electromagnetic Field Theory: A Problem Solving Approac
For any use or distribution of this textbook, please cite as follows:Markus Zahn,
Electromagnetic Field Theory: A Problem Solving Approach

chapter
7
electrodynamics-
fields
and
waves

488
Electrodynamics-Fields
and
Waves
The
electromagnetic
field
laws,
derivedthusfar from
the
empirically
determined
Coulomb-Lorentz
forces,
are correcton
the
time
scales
of
our
ownphysical
experiences.
However,
just
as
Newton'sforce
law
must
be
correctedfor material
speeds
approachingthat
of
light,the
field
laws
must
be
cor-
rectedwhen fast
time
variationsare on
the
order
of
the
time
it
takes
light
to
travelover
thelength
of
a
system.
Unlike
the
abstractness
of
relativistic
mechanics,thecomplete
elec-
trodynamic
equationsdescribe
a
familiar
phenomenon-propagation
of
electromagnetic
waves.
Throughout
the
rest
ofthis text,
we
will
examine
when
appropriate
the
low-
frequency
limits
to
justifythe past
quasi-static
assumptions.
7-1
MAXWELL'S
EQUATIONS
7-1-1
Displacement
Current
Correction
to
Ampere's
Law
In
the
historical
development
of
electromagnetic
field
theory
through
the
nineteenth
century,
charge
and
its
electric
field
were
studied separately
from
currents
and
their
magnetic
fields.
showed
that
a
timevarying
magnetic
field
generates
anelectric
field,
it was
thought
that
the
electric
and
magnetic
fields
were
distinct
and uncoupled.
believed
in
theduality
that
a
time
varying
electric
field
should
also
generate
a
magnetic
field,
but
he
was
not
able
toprove
this
supposition.
It
remained
for
James Clerk
Maxwell
to
show
that
Fara-
day's
hypothesis
was
correct and
that
without
this
correction
Ampere's
law
and
conservation
of
charge
were
inconsistent:
VxH=JJ
V
Jf
=
0
(1)
for
if
we
take
the divergence
of
Ampere's
law
in
(1),
the
current
densitymust
have
zero
divergence
because
thedivergence of thecurlof
a
vector
is
always
zero.
This
(2)
if
a
time
varyingcharge
is
present.
Maxwell
_