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Paper 13

Paper 13

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 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012
Applying Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm forSolving Travelling Salesman Problem
R.Sivaraj
Research Scholar andAssistant Professor (Sr.Gr)Department of CSEVelalar College of Engineeringand Technology, Erode, Indiarsivarajcse@gmail.com
Dr.T.Ravichandran
Principal andResearch SupervisorHindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Indiadr.t.ravichandran@gmail.com
R. Devi Priya
Assistant Professor,Department of ITKongu Engineering CollegeErode, Indiascrpriya@gmail.com
 Abstract:
 
Evolutionary Algorithms like GeneticAlgorithms have gained attraction for common use invarious domains for some years. The convergencevelocity in Genetic Algorithm is a major challengeconfronting researchers and numerous researches arebeing carried out to introduce various techniques toaddress this issue. Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm(GGGA) is a new variant of this kind which wasproposed to achieve better performance in terms of reaching suboptimal solution with improvedconvergence velocity. In this paper, GGGA isimplemented for Travelling Salesman Problem and theresults confirm the superior performance of GGGAover Standard Genetic Algorithm.
 
Keywords:
 
 Evolutionary algorithms, Genetic Algorithms,Convergence velocity, Travelling salesman problem.
 
I. INTRODUCTIONGenetic Algorithm (GA) is an important area inArtificial Intelligence which derives the idea from
Darwin‟s theory about evolution [Goldberg, 19
89].GA is easy to understand and program and hence it iscommonly used in many real-life applications. GAinvolves iterative execution of some important stepswhich can be adapted by the user for the specificproblem. Flexibility is an advantage in GA where theuser can have combination of any the operatorspresent in the standard processes or new operatorscan be defined specific to the problem. A
“chromosome” defines the solution for a problem.
Many such solutions are created at random initiallyand are collectively called as population. The fitnessfunction (Objective function) value is calculated forall the chromosomes (individuals) present in thepopulation and the best chromosomes are selected forthe successive crossover operation. Some of thetraditional selection mechanisms used to select parentchromosomes for crossover are Roulette Wheelselection, Tournament Selection, Rank Selection, etc.The better solutions are mated with each other toproduce much better solutions for next generations inthe process of crossover using any of the crossoveroperators like one-point crossover, two-pointcrossover etc. Mutation is a next step which is thendone with very low probability by randomlychanging some of the bits in order to introducegenetic diversity among the individuals. Thus thebasic idea behind Genetic Algorithm is that the abovegenetic operators like crossover, mutation are appliedto these chromosomes continuously in everygeneration to produce better individuals. If the newgeneration contains a solution that is near or equal tothe desired solution, then the algorithm terminatesand thus the problem has been solved. If not, the newgeneration will go through the same steps as theirparents did. This will be continued until a newsolution that is better than the previous one is reachedand thus it gradually evolves to an ideal solution.The key factors that are to be considered whileusing Genetic Algorithm are encoding scheme,population size, appropriate fitness function,selection and crossover mechanisms, crossover andmutation probability and finally the number of generations the algorithm is allowed to run. Thepopulation size is chosen by the user and utmost careshould be taken in determining it. Because if thepopulation size is too small, the algorithm searches inthe limited solution space and if it is too large, thealgorithm spends unnecessarily too much time infinding the solution. The success of GeneticAlgorithm depends on values determined from thefitness function for each chromosome which showshow close it actually is in reaching the solution of theproblem. Usage of fitness function which is notappropriate for the problem does not influence thealgorithm in reaching the final solution. Definingfitness function is thus a cru
cial part in designer‟s
point of view. All selection schemes try to find thebest chromosomes for crossover, but they differ in
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 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012
the way they select chromosomes and each one canbe suitable for different types of problems. Thecrossover and mutation probability determines thenumber of chromosomes allowed for mating andrandom flipping respectively.The "Traveling Salesman Problem" (TSP) is acommon NP hard problem that can be used to test theeffectiveness of Genetic Algorithm. The travelingsalesman probl
em is defined in simple term as: “If there are „n‟ cities and cost to travel between each
pair of them is given, the objective is to find thecheapest and shortest path that anyone can follow toreach destination city from the starting city providedall the cities involved in the problem are traveled
exactly once”.
 GA for TSP cannot be designed very easily.Many problems use just numerical values and henceit is easy to define the structure of chromosome andperform genetic operations. But TSP usespermutation encoding which uses ordering of citiesfor which genetic operations cannot be directlyapplied. Many researchers are putting in more effortin producing good approaches for solving TSP kindsof problems. In this paper we propose using a newalgorithm called Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithmwhich tends to perform better for TSP whencompared with existing algorithms. The proposedapproach not only works for TSP but also for othersimilar problems like Scheduling, Problems whichinvolves ordering etc.II. RELATED WORKIn Moon et al (2002), the authors propose to usetopological sorting which defines ordering of cities ina directed graph. In Zakir (2003), the sequentialconstructive crossover (SCX) operator constructschild chromosome using better edges based on theirvalues present in the parents' structure. Hu and DiPaolo (2007) suggest mapping the representedsolution of the pre-problem into the associatedsolution to the original problem. But designing pre-problem is extremely problem specific and requiresmuch expertise of the user. Buthainah and Ali (2008)suggest using specialized crossovers and mutation toimprove the solution. Gohar Vahdati et al (2009)proposed a new method using heuristic crossover andmutation operations to generate and to reinforceoptimal chromosomes. Fozia et al (2009) proposed anew representation scheme of chromosomes usingbinary matrix where new fittest criteria is used forfinding the optimal solution for TSP.III. PROPOSED METHODOLOGYGrouping genetic algorithm(GGA) is anevolution of the GA in which the genetic operationsare applied among a group of individuals(chromosomes) rather than considering all theindividuals in standard procedure. Grouping GeneticAlgorithm tends to perform better than StandardGenetic Algorithm in various kinds of problems suchas line balancing, bin packing etc. Instead of grouping chromosomes based on fitness values of entire chromosomes, the proposed approach groupsthe genes in an effective manner to produce betterresults. The basic idea behind Gene GroupingGenetic Algorithm proposed by Sivaraj andRavichandran (2011) is given below.
Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm
Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm (GGGA) is arelatively new algorithm which was introduced toeffectively solve multi-objective combinatorialproblems. It works on the simple principles andproduces improved performance. In general, structureof the chromosome is fixed and the pool of chromosomes is allowed to pass through geneticoperators like crossover and mutation. But in GGGA,
length of the entire chromosome is divided into „n‟
subparts where each subpart of all the chromosomesin the entire population participates in crossover andmutation separately. Consider for example there are nchromosomes in the population; each chromosome isdivided into groups as given below in figure 1.Figure 1. Structure of chromosomes used in GGGAThe encoding scheme chosen for the problem isPermutation encoding where genes in thechromosome represent the order in which one has totravel from the starting city. The idea here is that if there are n cities in the chosen problem, it has to bedivided into x/n subgroups where x represents thenumber of genes included in each subgroup. Ratherthan searching from the starting city to the last city ineach chromosome, the proposed approach effectivelysearches locally and combine the local best solutionsto form a global final solution.All the cities in the problem are grouped likeshown in figure 2 where each group will havecollection of cities. Parent selection, geneticoperators like crossover and mutation are applied andbest ordering of the cities within each group arecalculated independently as shown in figure 3 and
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 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012
finally the results from each group are combined toform a single solution as shown in figure 4. Thus itwill reduce the overhead for the algorithm to applygenetic operators as a whole which takes more timeto execute.Figure 2. Chromosome with subgroupsFigure 3. Local best solutionsFigure 4. Final global solutionIV. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTSStandard Genetic Algorithm is implemented forsolving Travelling Salesman Problem and itsperformance is compared with that of Gene GroupingGenetic Algorithm. TSPLIB instances are used forconducting the experiments.Too small number of groups will not have muchimpact and too large number of groups results inunnecessary process of splitting and combining.Hence a reasonable number of groups should bemaintained in order to achieve optimal solution. Forthis to achieve, population size should beappropriately chosen. The number of genes withineach group should also be chosen with utmost care.Table 1 shows the predictive accuracy of GGGA infinding the optimal solution with varying number of groups for TSPLIB instances.
TABLE 1
Results of GGGA with varying number of groups
The above table shows superior performance of GGGA in almost all instances. Since it finds the localbest solution and then integrates them to form theglobal best solution, it performs better. Even whenthe algorithm is allowed to run many timesrepeatedly, the results produced are consistent. Forft70 instance, the algorithm is repeated for 15 timesand the solution obtained from each run is shown inthe figure 5. This shows that even when the initialpopulation is chosen at random, GGGA is successfulin converging at consistent results in a reasonableamount of time.
Figure 5. Consistency of GGGA over 15 experiments forft70
The same experiments are conducted in p43 instanceand the results are shown in figure 6. It also confirmsthe consistency of GGGA in finding the optimalsolution.Rather than using random initial randompopulation, Genetic Algorithm will tend to producebetter results if prior knowledge is incorporated ininitializing the population. Hence in all ourexperiments, GGGA is implemented with case basedinitialization where some prior knowledge about the
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