International Journal of Computer Information Systems,Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012
Applying Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm forSolving Travelling Salesman Problem
Research Scholar andAssistant Professor (Sr.Gr)Department of CSEVelalar College of Engineeringand Technology, Erode, Indiarsivarajcse@gmail.com
R. Devi Priya
Assistant Professor,Department of ITKongu Engineering CollegeErode, Indiascrpriya@gmail.com
Evolutionary Algorithms like GeneticAlgorithms have gained attraction for common use invarious domains for some years. The convergencevelocity in Genetic Algorithm is a major challengeconfronting researchers and numerous researches arebeing carried out to introduce various techniques toaddress this issue. Gene Grouping Genetic Algorithm(GGGA) is a new variant of this kind which wasproposed to achieve better performance in terms of reaching suboptimal solution with improvedconvergence velocity. In this paper, GGGA isimplemented for Travelling Salesman Problem and theresults confirm the superior performance of GGGAover Standard Genetic Algorithm.
Evolutionary algorithms, Genetic Algorithms,Convergence velocity, Travelling salesman problem.
I. INTRODUCTIONGenetic Algorithm (GA) is an important area inArtificial Intelligence which derives the idea from
Darwin‟s theory about evolution [Goldberg, 19
89].GA is easy to understand and program and hence it iscommonly used in many real-life applications. GAinvolves iterative execution of some important stepswhich can be adapted by the user for the specificproblem. Flexibility is an advantage in GA where theuser can have combination of any the operatorspresent in the standard processes or new operatorscan be defined specific to the problem. A
“chromosome” defines the solution for a problem.
Many such solutions are created at random initiallyand are collectively called as population. The fitnessfunction (Objective function) value is calculated forall the chromosomes (individuals) present in thepopulation and the best chromosomes are selected forthe successive crossover operation. Some of thetraditional selection mechanisms used to select parentchromosomes for crossover are Roulette Wheelselection, Tournament Selection, Rank Selection, etc.The better solutions are mated with each other toproduce much better solutions for next generations inthe process of crossover using any of the crossoveroperators like one-point crossover, two-pointcrossover etc. Mutation is a next step which is thendone with very low probability by randomlychanging some of the bits in order to introducegenetic diversity among the individuals. Thus thebasic idea behind Genetic Algorithm is that the abovegenetic operators like crossover, mutation are appliedto these chromosomes continuously in everygeneration to produce better individuals. If the newgeneration contains a solution that is near or equal tothe desired solution, then the algorithm terminatesand thus the problem has been solved. If not, the newgeneration will go through the same steps as theirparents did. This will be continued until a newsolution that is better than the previous one is reachedand thus it gradually evolves to an ideal solution.The key factors that are to be considered whileusing Genetic Algorithm are encoding scheme,population size, appropriate fitness function,selection and crossover mechanisms, crossover andmutation probability and finally the number of generations the algorithm is allowed to run. Thepopulation size is chosen by the user and utmost careshould be taken in determining it. Because if thepopulation size is too small, the algorithm searches inthe limited solution space and if it is too large, thealgorithm spends unnecessarily too much time infinding the solution. The success of GeneticAlgorithm depends on values determined from thefitness function for each chromosome which showshow close it actually is in reaching the solution of theproblem. Usage of fitness function which is notappropriate for the problem does not influence thealgorithm in reaching the final solution. Definingfitness function is thus a cru
cial part in designer‟s
point of view. All selection schemes try to find thebest chromosomes for crossover, but they differ in
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