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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgments
Methodology
Findings
Historical and Sociocultural Context
Executive Summary
Seminary Education
Individual, Psychological Factors
Organizational Factors
Situational Factors and Prevention Policies
Summary
Introduction
The Nature and Scope Study
Summary Findings
Abusers and Victims
Type and Location of Offenses
Diocesan Action in Response to Reports of Abuse
Context for the Crisis
Understanding Sexual Abuse in Society
Historical Overview of the Problem of Sexual Abuse in the United States
Estimates of the Prevalence of Abuse
Early Psychological Studies of Child Sexual Abusers
Understanding “Normal” Sexual Behavior and Identity
Sex Offender Typologies and Multimodal Explanations of Behavior
The Role of Opportunity in Sexual Abuse
Understanding Sexual Abuse in Youth- Serving Organizations
Schools
Child Care Settings
Boy Scouts of America
Big Brothers Big Sisters
Athletic Organizations
Professional and Legal Remedies
Understanding Sexual Abuse in Religious Institutions
Protestant Denominations
Southern Baptist
Episcopal
Jehovah’s Witnesses
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—Mormons
Jewish Community
Understanding Sexual Abuse within Families
Research with Empirical Methods
Conclusion
Incidence and Reports of Abuse, 1950-2010
Patterns of Incidence of Abuse, 1950-2002
National Patterns
Patterns of Reporting Abuse, 1950-2002
Estimating the Distribution of Unreported Cases of Abuse
Reports of Sexual Abuse, 2004-2009
Understanding Change over Time
Research Questions: Incidence of Abuse
Reasons for Variation in Sexual Abuse
The Commitment to Celibacy
Questions of Sexuality and Sexual Identity
Social Influences on Sexuality: Period Effects
Social Influences: Cohort Effects on Sexual Behavior
Resignations from the Catholic Priesthood
Ordination Cohorts
Homosexual Behavior in United States Seminaries
Cohort Patterns
Seminary Formation for Ministry
Curricular Change in Formation for Celibacy
The First Edition (1971)
The Second Edition (1976)
The Third Edition (1981)
The Fourth Edition (1992)
The Fifth Edition (2005)
Individual Causes of Deviant Sexual Behavior
Nature and Scope Study
Loyola Psychological Study
Causes and Context Clinical Data
Identity and Behavior Data
Identity and Behavior Sample Characteristics
Data Analysis and Results
Psychological Test Results
Personality Subscales Generalized
Behavioral Explanations: Causal Factors Based on Individual Experience
Causes and Context Clinical Data: History of Abuse or Family Trauma
Clinical Data: Developmental Factors
Causes and Context Clinical Data: Sexual History and Experience
Identity and Behavior Data: Sexual History
Identity and Behavior Data: Internal and External Esteem
Identity and Behavior Data: Social Bonding
Sexual Deviance and Vulnerability
Intimacy Defcits: An Overview
Loyola Psychological Study Data
Identity and Behavior Data: Situational Stressors
Transition to Parish Life
Negative Early Parish Life
Uprooting
Distance Ministry
Family Stress
Poor Self-Care
Parishioner Interactions
Disclosure of Abuse and Diocesan Response
Development of Diocesan Response to Sexual Abuse by Priests
The Case of Gilbert Gauthe
NCCB Action on Sexual Abuse
Development of Treatment for Sex Offenders
Early Treatments for Sex Offenders: The Medical Models
Behavioral Treatment
Cognitive Behavioral Models of Treatment
Professionalization of Treatment
Sex Abuse Treatment for Catholic Priests
Nature and Scope Data on Treatment of Priests
Reassignment and the Understanding of Relapse
Ad Hoc Committee on Sexual Abuse
Development and Implementation of the “Five Principles”
Survey of Diocesan Practices
Understanding the Pace of Institutional Change
Documenting Institutional Change
Mid-1990s Diocesan Response
Policies and Practices
Treatment in the 1990s: Relapse Prevention
Failures of Institutional Response
Actions of Diocesan Leaders
Priestly Advocacy for Victims
Organization of Victims
Priests’ Response to Their Peers
Comparison between the Catholic Church and Other Organizations
Police Organizational Structure and Deviance
Organizational Structure and the Catholic Church
Authority
Public Perception
Isolation and Lack of Supervision
Overview of Research on Sexual Victimization of Children
Victimization and the Catholic Church
Onset of Abuse
Situational Infuences and the Onset of Abuse
Nature and Scope Data
Victim Assistance Coordinator (VAC) and Survivor Surveys
Grooming Behavior and the Onset of Abuse
Persistence of Abuse
Excuses
Denial of Responsibility
Denying the Victim
Justifcations
Appealing to a Higher Authority
Minimization of Harm
Condemning the Condemners
Desistance from Abuse
Summary of Findings
Historical Nature of Abuse
Seminary Education and Priestly Formation
Clinical and Individual Factors
Organizational Responses to Abuse
Recommendations for Prevention Policies
Education
Situational Prevention Models
Oversight and Accountability
Directions for Further Research
Notes
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Causes and Context of Sexual Abuse Minors by Catholic Priests in the United States 1950 2010

Causes and Context of Sexual Abuse Minors by Catholic Priests in the United States 1950 2010

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Published by Francis A. Somuah

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Published by: Francis A. Somuah on Mar 10, 2012
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