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الاهمية الاستراتيجية للموارد البشرية

الاهمية الاستراتيجية للموارد البشرية

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Published by serpon

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Published by: serpon on Nov 27, 2008
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01/13/2013

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ﺔﻠﻗﺭﻭ
 
ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻹﺍ
 
ﻡﻮﻠﻌﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﻕﻮﻘﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻛ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
0909
--
1010
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
20042004 154
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻫﻷﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺩ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺓﺯﻜﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺩﺍﺩﻋﺇ
 
ﻥﻤ 
:
1
-
ﻪﻴﻀﺤﻴ 
 
ﻲﻟﻼﻤﺴ 
 
2
-
ﺩﻤﺤﺍ
 
ﻲﻟﻼﺒ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ
 
ﻡﻭﻠﻌﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻕﻭﻘﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻜ 
 
ﺠ ﺔﻠﻗﺭﻭ 
 
ﺔﻌﻤﺎ 
 
ﺔـﻋﻭﻤﺠﻤ 
 
لـﺒﻗ 
 
ﻥـﻤ 
 
لـﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﻡﺎﻤﺘﻫﻻﺍ
 
ﻲﻗﻼﺘ 
 
ﺕﻟﺍﺯﺎﻤ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻊﻴﻀﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻡﻫﺃ
 
ﺩﺤﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﻌﺘ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﺓﺯـﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﺩﺎﺼـﻤ 
 
ﺩـﻴﺩﺤﺘ 
 
ﺔﻟﻭﺎﺤﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺕﺎﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺯﻜﺭ 
 
ﺩﻘﻠﻓ،
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
لﺎﺠﻤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﻥﻴﺜﺤﺎﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﻬﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻪﺘﻴﻗﻻ
 
ﻱﺫﻟﺍ
 
لﺎﺒﻗﻹﺍ
 
ﻡﻏﺭ 
 
ﻭ 
 
،ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍﺕﺍﺭـﻴﻐﺘﻤﺒ 
 
ﺔﺴـﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﻁﺒﺭﺘ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻜﻴ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﺭﺎﺨﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺌﻴﺒﻟﺍ
 –
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
لﻜﻴﻫ
 -
ﻔﺼﺒ ﺔ ﺔﺼﺎﺨ 
 
ﺭﻭﺩﻭ 
 
ﺔـﻴﻤﻫﺃ
 
ﺩـﻴﻜﺄﺘ 
 
ﻭـﺤﻨ 
 
ﻪﺠﺘﺍ
 
ﻲﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺍ
 
ﻻﺇ،
 
ﻴﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍﺔ ـﻠﻋ
 
ﺔـﻴﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
،ﺔﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻙﻼﺘﻤﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻕﻠﺨ 
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﻰ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
RESOURCE BASED VEIW
ﻭﺎﺤﻨ 
 
ﺭﺎﻁﻹﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻥﻤﻀ 
 
ﻭ 
 
،
 
ل ﺩﺭﺍﻭـﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘـﺴﻻﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻫﻷﺍ
 
ﺯﺍﺭﺒﺇ
 
ﺩﺤﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻫﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺎﺒ 
 
ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩ ﺔﻓﺭﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻲﻨﺒﻤ 
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ
 
ﻭﺤﻨ 
 
لﺎﻘﺘﻨﻻﺍ
 
لﻅ 
 
ﻲﻓ،
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ
 . 
ﻻﻭﺃ
:
ﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻡﻭﻬﻔﻤﻟ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﺫﺠﻟﺍﺕ 
 
ﻟ ﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺌﻴﺒ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻠﺼﺎﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻠﻤﺠ 
 
ﺕﻀﻓﺃ
 
ﺩﻘ ﺔ ،ﺎﻤ 
 
ﺔﺼﺎﺨ 
 
ﺘ ﻠﻌ ﻕ ﺎﻬﺘﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﺒ 
 
،ﻕﺩـﺼ 
 
ﻲـﻓ 
 
ﻙﻴﻜﺸﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺓﺩﻨﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻅﻨﻟﺍﻟ ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻜﻴﻬﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤ ،ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺎﺒ 
 
ﻯﺭﺘ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍﺕﺍﺫ لﻜﻴﻬﻟﺍﺫـﻟﺍ
 
ﻡﺌﻼﻤﻟﺍﻱﺒ 
 
ﻡﺴﺘﻴ ﻟﺎ ﻉﺎﺴﺘﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺏﻠﻁﻟﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﻭﻤﻨ ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻘﻤ ﺔﻋﺎﺠﻨﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ،ﺼ 
 
ﻲﻫ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻯﻭﺩﺠ 
 
ﺭﺜﻜﺃ
 
ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨ ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻋﺎﻓ ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ
 . 
ﺩﻘﻓ 
 
ﺱﺎﺴﻷﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻭ ﻊﺌﺎﻗﻭﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺘﺒﺜﺃﻥﻤ 
 
ﺍﺭﻴﺜﻜ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺩﺠﻨ 
 
ﺙﻴﺤﺒ 
 
،ﺭﻤﻷﺍ
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﻑﻼﺨ ﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﺕ ﻕﻘﺤﺘ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺕﻋﺎﻁﺘﺴﺍ
 
ﺎﺤﺎﺠﻨ ﻥﻤﻀ 
 
ﺍﺭﻴﺒﻜ 
 
ﻤﻜ 
 
،ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺸﺍ
 
ﺎ ﻥﺄﺸﻟﺍ
 
ﻭﻫ
 
ﻟ 
 
ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺒ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻠ ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻠﻤﺎﻌﻟﺍﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ 
 
ﻉﺎﻁﻗ 
 
،ﺓﺭﺎﻴﺴـﻟﺍ
 
لﺜﻤ ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤ 
FIAT
ﺎﻁﺘﺴﺍ
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﻋﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺯﻴﻤ 
 
ﻥﻴﺴﺤﺘ ﺒ 
 
ﻟﺎ ﻏﺭ ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻡ ﺔـﻴﺭﻭﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔـﻴﻨﺎﺒﺎﻴﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻜﺭﺸﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺒﻭﻨﺠﻟﺍ،ﺔﺼﺎﺨ 
 
ﺔﻔﺼﺒ ﺭﻭﺘﻭﻤ 
 
لﺍﺭﻨﺠ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤ 
 
ﺍﺫﻜ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺯ ﺫﻫﻭ 
 
،ﺍﺭﺒﺘﻋﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻁﻗ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺕ ﻜﻴﻫ
 
ﺓﺩـﺤ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻁﻭﺒﻫ
 
ﺔﻟﺎﺤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺎﻴﻠ ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
. 
ﺩﻘﻟ 
 
ﺯﺯﻋﻡﻋﺩ 
 
ﻭ ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻊﻗﺍﻭﻟﺍ
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﺭﻴﻜﻔﺘﻟﺍﺯﻜﺭﻤﻟﺍﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 -
ﻫﻻﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
لﺩﺒ ﺒ 
 
ﻡﺎـﻤﺘ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼـﻟﺎ 
-
،
 
ﺒ 
 
ﻯﺭﻴ 
 
ﻱﺫﻟﺍﻭ ﻥﺄ ﺩﺩﺤﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻭﻗﻷﺍ
 
ﻯﺔﻴﺤﺒﺭﻠﻟ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
لﻜﻴﻫ
 
ﻭﻫ
 
ﺱﻴﻟ ،ﻷﺍ
 
ﻕﻠﻌﺘﻴ 
 
لﺒ ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
لﻴﻌﻔﺘ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﻴﻨﺠﺘﺒ 
 
ﺭﻤ 
 
ﻴﺭﻭﺤﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜ 
 
ﻭ ﺔ 
.
ﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻰﻠﻋﻷﺱﺎﺴ ﺕﺤﺒﺼﺃﺔﻴﻠﻜﻴﻬﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺭﻅﻨﻟﺍﺔﻴﺴـﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺭﻴﺴﻔﺘ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺓﺭﺩﻘﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﻟ 
 
ﺕﺴﻴﻟ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﻴﻠﻘﺘ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ،ﻤﻤ 
 
ﺎ ﻬﻠﻌﺠ 
 
ﺎ ﺎﺌﻴﺸ 
 
ﺎﻬﻨﺎﻜﻤ 
 
ﻙﺭﺘﺘ 
 
ﻟ 
 
ﺎﺌﻴﺸﻓ ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ 
 
ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨ 
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤ ﺔﻴﻟﻭﻤﺸ 
 
ﺭﺜﻜﺃ،ﺕﻓﺭﻋﺒ ﺓﺯـﻜﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔـﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺎ ﻠﻋﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
RESOURCE BASED VEIW
. 
 
 
ﺔﻠﻗﺭﻭ
 
ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻹﺍ
 
ﻡﻮﻠﻌﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﻕﻮﻘﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻛ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
0909
--
1010
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
20042004 155
 
ﻊﻤﻓ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﻨﺎﻤﺜﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺎﻬﻨ 
 
لﺼﺤ 
 
ﻲﻀﺎﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺭﻘﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺎﻤﺩـﻌﺒﻓ 
 
،ﻲﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﻭﺩﺃ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺝﺫﺎﻤﻨ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﻡﺎﻫ
 
ﺭﻴﻴﻐﺘ 
 
لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺔﻬﺠﺘﻤ 
 
ﺎﺴﺎﺴﺃ
 
ﺕﻨﺎﻜ ﺕﺃﺩﺒ 
 
،ﻕﺍﻭﺴﻸﻟ 
 
ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻱﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍﺕﺍﻭﺩﻷﺍ
 
ﻙﻠﺘ ﻪﺠﺘﺘ ﻰـﻠﻋ
 
ﺯـﻴﻜﺭﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻰـﻟﺇﻟﺍلﻴﻠﺤﺘ ﻲﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍلﻜﺸ 
 
ﺩﻘﻠﻓ 
 
ﺍﺫﻜﻫ
 
ﻭ،ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺭﻭﺭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
لﻜﻴﻫﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﺔـﻴﺭﻅﻨ 
 
ﺔﻌﻴﻁﻗ 
 
،ﺔـﻤﻬﻤ 
 
ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﻲﺴﺎﺴﻷﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﻠﻤﺎﻋ
 
ﻥﺎﻜ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺱﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
)
 basé sur les ressourcesPerspective
(
يﺬﻟا
 
ﺫـﺨﺄﻴ 
 
ﻻ
 
ﺭﺘﺴﺇ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﻻﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻁﺎﺸﻨ 
 
ﺔﻅﻓﺎﺤ 
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍ
)
ﻕﺍﻭﺴﺃ
 
،ﺕﺎﺠﺘﻨﻤ 
(
ﺎـﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
لﻼـﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
لﺒ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻴﻏ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍ
1
. 
ﻩﺫﻫ
 
ﻥﺇﻠﻋ
 
ﺓﺯﻜﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰ ﻙﺭﺘﺸﻤ 
 
لﻜﺸﺒ 
 
ﺎﻬﻟﻭﺼﺃ
 
ﺩﻤﺘﺴﺘ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
2
: 
1
-
ﻥﻭﻨﺎﻗ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﺍﺫﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟ 
"
loi des débouchés
"
ـﻟ 
 
ﺭﻭﻬﺸﻤﻟﺍ
Say 1803
ﺝﺎﺘﻨﻹﺍ
 
ﻥﺎﺒ 
 
ﻯﺭﻴ 
 
ﻱﺫﻟﺍ
 
،ﻱﺩﻭـﻴ ﺎـﻴﻘﻁﻨﻤ 
 
ﻰﻟﺇﻕﻠﺨ ﻟﺍﺏﻠﻁ ﻰﻠﻋﺕﺎﺠﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
،ﻙﻟﺫ ﻻﻥ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ
 
ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
لﻴﻜﺸﺘ 
 
ﺎﻬﻨﺎﺸ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
-
ﻪﻴﺃﺭ 
 
ﺏﺴﺤ 
 -
ﻥﺃﺔﻅﺤﻠﻟﺍ
 
ﺱﻔﻨ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺢﺘﻔﺘ 
 
،ﻯﺭﺨﺃ
 
ﺕﺎﺠﺘﻨﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺍﺫﻔﻨﻤ 
 
2
-
ﻥﻤ ﻊﻴﺭﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨ 
 
la théorie de rente"
"
ـﻟ 
 
David Ricardo
ﻲﺘﻟﺍﺭﺘﻔﺘ 
 
ﺽ ﺓﺩـﻋ
 
ﻭﺃ
 
ﺩﺭﻭـﻤ 
 
ﻙﻼﺘﻤﺍ
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﻪﻜﻟﺎﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺩﻭﻌﻴ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﻥﻜﻤﻴ 
 
ﺓﺭﺩﺎﻨ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ ﺒ ﻴﻌﻴﺒﺭ 
 
ﺩﺌﺍﻭﻔ ﺔ ﺓﺩﻴﻔﻤ 
 . 
ﺔﺜﺍﺩﺤ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻡﻏﺭﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﻭ ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻩﺫﻫﺙﻴﺤ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻠﻜﺸ 
 
،ﻲﻟﺎﺤﻟﺍﺎﻬﻨﺃ
 
ﻻﺇﺎﻨﺒ 
 
ﻊﺠﺭﺘ لﺎﻤﻋﺃ
 
ﻰﻟﺇﻥﻤ 
 
لﻜ 
 
Ricardo (1817)
,
Shemputer (1934), Say (1803)
ﺩﻘﻠﻓ 
 
،ﺩﺩﺠ ﺕ ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃﺍﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻴﺭﻅﻨﻟ ﻻﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼـﺘﻗ ﻟﺍﺔـﻤﻴﺩﻘ ﺎـﺒ 
 
ﺔﻠﺼـﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺫ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺢﺒﺭﻟ ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟﺍﻲﺘﻟﺍ،ﺽﺭﺘﻔﺘ ﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻭﺍﺯ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﻲﻠﺒﻘﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻴﺜﺄﺘ 
)
 prédominance
(
ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﺼﺎﺨﻟﺍ
 
،ﻟ 
 
ﺔﻐﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺘ 
 
ﻻ
 
ﺎﻬﻨﺃ
 
ﻱﺃﺔﻴﻠﻜﻴﻬﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﺼﺌﺎﺼﺨ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻠ 
. 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺍﺩﺎﻨﺘﺴﺍ
 
ﺽﺭﻌﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ
 
ﻱﺭﻅﻨﻤ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺩﺠﻨ 
 
l'économie de l'offre"
"
ﺔـﺼﺎﺨ 
 
ﻭ 
 
Friedman
ﻥـﻤﻭ ﻡﻬﻠﺒﻗ 
PENROS 1959
,
،ﺍﻭﻠﺼﻭﺘ ﻥﺃ
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺔﻋﺎﺠﻨ ﻓ 
 
ﻭ ﻟﺎﻌ ﻴ ﺔ ﺩﺃ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﺍﺎﻬﺌ ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤ 
 
ﻕﻴﻘﺤﺘ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺭﺩﻗ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺘ 
 
،ﺔﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤ ﻤﻜ ﻥ ﺎﻫﺩﺎﻤﺘﻋﺍ
 
ﻯﺩﻤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ
 
ﺔﺠﺭﺩﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﺫ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋﻜﺘﺭﺘ 
 
،ﺔﻠﻴﺼﺃ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻴﻜ ﺯ ﺓﺩﺭـﻔﺘﻤ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭـﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﺒ 
 
ﺹﺘﺨﺘ ﻤ 
 
ﺎﻫﺭﻴﻏ
 
ﻥﻋ
 
ﻥ ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺱﻴﻟﻭ 
 
،ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﺒﺍﺫﺠ 
 
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟ 
 
ﺎﻫﺭﺎﻴﺘﺨﺍ
 
،ﻪـﻴﻟﺇ
 
ﺏﻫﺫﻴ 
 
ﺎﻤﻜ 
 
ﺩﺍﻭﺭ ﻘﻤﻟﺍﺔﺒﺭﺎ ﺔﻴﻠﻜﻴﻬﻟﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
3
.
ﻭ ﺭﺒﺘﻌﻴ 
 
ﺏﺎﺘﻜ 
 
Ponros
لﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺍﺀﺯﺠ ﺔﻠﺼﺅﻤﻟﺍﻟ ﺃ
 
ﺓﺭﻜﻔ 
ﻥ 
ﻙﻭﻠﺴ ﻨ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻋﺎﺠ ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﺔﺼﺎﺨﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻩﺭﻴﺴﻔﺘ 
 
ﻥﻜﻤﻴ 
 
،ﻓ ﺏﺴﺤ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺎ ﻪﻴﺃﺭ ﻥﺃ
 
ﺏﺠﻴ 
 "
ﺎـﻬﻨﺃ
 
ﻰـﻠﻋ
 
ﻡﻬﻔﺘ 
 
ﺝﺫﻭﻤﻨ 
 
ﻭﺃ
 
ﺭﺎﻁﺇﻱﺭﻴﻴﺴﺘ ﺍ
 
ﻊﻴﻤﺠﻟ ﺠﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟ ﺔ ،ﺩﺩـﻌﺘﻤ 
 
ﻕﻴﺴﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻁﺒﺍﺭﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺫ ﻻﺍﺕﻻﺎﻤﻌﺘـﺴ ،ﺙـﻴﺤﺒ ﻥﻭـﻜﺘ 
 
ﺭﺍﺭﻘﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻌﻀﺎﺨ ﻱﺭﺍﺩﻹﺍ
"
4
. 
ﺫﻫ
 
ﻰﻠﻋﻭ ﻩﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺯﻜﺘﺭﺍلﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺭﻴﺜﻜﻟﺍﺔﻴﺭﻜﻔﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺩﻜﺃ
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻙﻭﻠـﺴ 
 
ﻡـﻬﻓ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﺩ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻫﺃ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﻁﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻜ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﻱ
.
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﺓﺭﺎﺸﻹﺍ
 
ﺭﺩﺠﺘ 
 
ﻭ ﻥﺃ
Wernefelt
ﺩﻌﻴ لﻭﺃلﺎﻤﻌﺘـﺴﺍ
 
ﺔـﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺢﻠﻁﺼـﻤ ﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍﺩ 
resource based view
ﻩﺫﻫ
 
لﻤﻌﺘﺴﺍ
 
ﻥﻴﺤ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻌﻟﺍﺔﻨـﺴ 
 
ﻩﺭﺸﻨ 
 
لﺎﻘﻤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
1984
ﺓﺩـﻴﺭﺠ 
 
ﻲـﻓ 
 
ﺭﻴﻴﺴﺘﻟﺍﻲﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
Strategic Management journal
 
ﻡﺜ 
 
،
 
لﺎـﺜﻤﺃ
 
ﻥـﻤ 
 
ﻥﻭﺭـﺨﺁ
 
ﻪﻌﺒﺘ 
Grant, Cool
,
Barney
ﺫﻬﻟ 
 
ﻥﻴﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﻩﺔﻴﺭﻅﻨﻟﺍﺕﺭﺒﺘﻋﺍ
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﻌﺒ 
 
ﻡﻴﻓ 
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺍﺫﺒ 
 
ﺔﻤﺌﺎﻗ 
 
ﺔﺴﺭﺩﻤ 
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﺕﺎﻴﻨﻴﻌﺴﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺭﺘﻓ 
.
ﻟ ﺢـﻤﻼﻤ 
 
ﻙﻟﺫـﺒ 
 
لﻜﺸﺘﺘ ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
لﺎﺠﻤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻌﺴﻭﻤ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺓﺩﻴﺩﺠ 
 
ﺓﺭﻅﻨ 
. 
ﺎﻴﻨﺎﺜ 
:
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺎﻴﻀﺭﻓ 
 
ﻥﻴﺘﻴﻀﺭﻓ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻲﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
لﻴﻠﺤﺘﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻴﻜﻴﺴﻼﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﺝﺫﺎﻤﻨﻟﺍ
 
ﺯﻜﺘﺭﺘ ﻥﻴﺘﻴﺴﺎﺴﺃ
 
،ﺔـﻬﺠ 
 
ﻥﻤﻓ ﺽﺭـﺘﻔﺘ ﻥﺍ
 
ﻟﺍﺕﺎﺴـﺴﺅﻤ 
 
ﺔﻁﺸﻨﻟﺍﻲﻓ 
 
ﺔﻠﺜﺎﻤﺘﻤ 
 
ﺭﺒﺘﻌﺘ 
 
ﺎﻤ 
 
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼ ﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ ﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﻻﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟ ﻭ 
 
ﺎـﻬﻴﻠﻋ
 
ﺭﻁﻴﺴـﺘ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟ ﺍﺫـﻜ 
 
ﺕﺎﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘـﺴﻻﺍ
 
 
 
ﺔﻠﻗﺭﻭ
 
ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﻹﺍ
 
ﻡﻮﻠﻌﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﻕﻮﻘﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻠﻛ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍﻭ
 
ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺇ
 
ﻲﻓ
 
ﺝﺎﻣﺪﻧﻹﺍ
 
ﺹﺮﻓﻭ
 
ﺔﻳﺮﺸﺒﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻝﻮﺣ
 
ﻲﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻘﺘﻠﻤﻟﺍ
0909
--
1010
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
ﺱﺭﺎﻣ
 
20042004 156
ﺔﺠﻬﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍﺽﺭﺘﻔﺘ 
 
ﻯﺭﺨﺃ
 
ﺔﻬﺠ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻭ 
 
،ﺔﺘﺒﺎﺜ 
 
ﺭﻴﻏﻭ 
 
ﺔﻜﺭﺤﺘﻤ 
 
ﺔﺤﺎﺘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺍ
 )
لﻘﻨﺘﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻠﺒﻗ 
(
ﻲـﻨﻌﻴ 
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻭ،ﻡﺩـﻋﺩﻭﺠﻭ ﻥﻴﺎﺒﺘ 
 )
hétérogénéité
(
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ ﻠﻤﻌﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍﺔ ﻙﻠﺘ 
 
ﻑﺭﻁ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻤﻀ ﺎﻬﺘﺎﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﺍ
.
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﻑﻼﺨﺒ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺩﺠﻨ ﻠﻋ
 
ﺯﻜﺘﺭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﻅﻨﻤﻟﺍلﺒﻗ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻡﺩﻘﻤ 
 
ﻭﻫ
 
ﺎﻤﻜ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰ 
)
Barney,1991
(
ﺔـﺴﺍﺭﺩﻟ 
 
ﻥﻴﺘﻠﻴﺩﺒ 
 
ﻥﻴﺘﻴﻀﺭﻓ 
 
ﺡﺭﺘﻘﻴ ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤ ﻤﻫ
 
ﺎ 
5
:
-
ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻀﺭﻔﻟﺍ
 :
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﻲﺒﺴﻨﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻴﺎﺒﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺝﺫﻭﻤﻨﻟﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﺽﺭﺘﻔﻴ ﺕ ﺔـﻨﻴﺎﺒﺘﻤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘـﺴﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭـﻤ 
 
ﺎـﻬﻟ 
 
ﻥﻭﻜﺘ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﻥﻜﻤﻴ 
 
ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
ﺱﻔﻨﻟ 
 
ﺔﻌﺒﺎﺘﻟﺍ
 
،
 
ﻱﺃ
 
ﻴ 
 
ﻯﺭﺨﺃ
 
ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻌﺒ ﻥﻜﻤ ﻟ ﻯﺭﺨﻷ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺎﻴﺒﺴﻨ 
 
ﺯﻴﻤﺘﺘ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻠ ،ﻨﺎﻜ 
 
ﻥﺇ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻰﺘﺤ 
 
ﺱﻔﻨـﻟ 
 
ﺔﻌﺒﺎﺘ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻩﺫﻫ
 
ﺕ 
 
،ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ
 
ﻭﺍ
 
ﻉﺎﻁﻘﻟﺍﻪﻴﻠﻋ
 
ﻭ ﻓ ﺎ ﺍ
 
ﻥ ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺭﻬﺸ 
 
،ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻟﻭﻨﻜﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
،
 
ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟ ﻤ 
 
ﺎ ﻻﺃ
 
ﻲﻫ
 
ﺔﻠﺒﺎﻗ 
 
ﺕﺍﺭﻴﻐﺘﻤ 
 
ﺯﻴﻤﺘﻠﻟ ﻭ ﻯﺭﺨﻷ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻥﻴﺎﺒﺘﻟﺍ
. 
-
ﺔﻴﻨﺎﺜﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻀﺭﻔﻟﺍ
 :
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻴﻜﺭﺤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺒﺴﻨ 
 
،ﺔﻘﻠﻁﻤ 
 
ﺕﺴﻴﻟ 
 
ﺎﻬﻨﺃ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻩﺫﻬﻟ 
 
ﺎﻘﻓﻭ 
 
ﺽﺭﺘﻔﻴ 
 
ﺕﺎﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻴﺒﺎﻤ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﻜﺭﺤ 
 
ﻥﺇ
 
ﻭ ﻲـﻨﻌﻴ 
 
ﺎﻤ 
 
ﻭﻫ
 
ﻥﻴﺎـﺒﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ ﺩﻗ ،ﺎﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤ 
 
ﻥﻭﻜﻴ ﺩﻭﺠﻭﻟ لﻤﺍﻭﻋ
 
ﺩﺤﺘ ﻥﻤ ﺔـﻜﺭﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺎﻬﺘﺭﺩﻗ 
 
لـﻤﺎﻜ 
 
لﻜﺸـﺒ 
 )
Imparfaitement
 
mobile
.(
ﺎﻜﻤﻻﺎﺒ 
 
ﻥﺎﻜ 
 
ﺍﺫﺈﻓ ﻥ ﺴﺴﺅﻤ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺎﻴﺠﻭﻟﻭﻨﻜﺘﻟﺍ
 
لﻘﻨﺒ 
 
ﻡﻭﻘﻨ 
 
ﻥﺇ
 
ﻼﺜﻤ 
 
لﻭـﺤﺘ 
 
ﺩﻗ 
 
ﻉﺍﺭﺘﺨﻻﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺭﺒ 
 
ﻥﺎﻓ 
 
ﻯﺭﺨﻷ
 
ﺔ 
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﺔﻟﻭﻬﺴ 
 
ﻥﻭﺩ 
. 
ﺎﺜﻟﺎﺜ 
:
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺍ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤ 
 
ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻜﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﺜﺍ
 
لﻴﻠﺤﺘ 
 
ﺏﻠﻁﺘﻴ ﻻﺏﺴﺤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗ 
)
Barney,1991
(
6
 
ﺩﻴﺩﺤﺘ 
 
ﺔﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
،
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
،
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
لﻜ 
 
ﻥﻭﻤﻀﻤ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﺭﺎﻘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺯﻜﺘﺭﻤ 
 
ﺎﻫﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺎﺒ ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
. 
ﺎﻓ ﺹﺌﺎﺼـﺨﻟﺍ
 
،ﺔـﻴﻤﻴﻅﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺭـﺠﻹﺍ
 
،ﺕﺎﻗﺎﻁﻟﺍ
 
ﻭﺃ
 
ﺕﺍﺭﺩﻘﻟﺍ
 
،لﻭﺼﻷﺍ
 
ﻉﻭﻤﺠﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
لﻤﺘﺸﺘ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟ 
)
attributs
(
،
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻬﻴﻓ 
 
ﻡﻜﺤﺘﺘ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻬﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻑﺭﺎﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
،ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻟﺍ،ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ
 
ﺭﻁﻴﺴﺘ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺎﻬﻨﻜﻤﺘ ﺫـﻴﻔﻨﺘ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﺍﺩـﻋﺇﻨﺘ 
 
ﺕﺎﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﺍﻬﺘﻋ
 
ﺎﺠﻨ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺎﻬﺘﻴﻟﺎﻌﻓ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺩﻴﺯﺘ 
 
ﻥﺃ
 
ﺎﻬﻨﺄﺸ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎ ﺎ 
. 
ﺎﻤﻜ ،ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﺔﻁﺒﺘﺭﻤ 
 
ﺔﺴﻭﺴﺤﻤ 
 
ﺭﻴﻏ
 
ﻭﺃ
 
ﺔﺴﻭﺴﺤﻤ 
 
لﻭﺼﺃ
 
ﺎﻬﹼﻨﺃ
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺎﻔﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻑﺭﻌﺘ ﺎﻬﻔﻴﻨﺼﺘ 
 
ﻥﻜﻤﻴ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺕﺎﺌﻓ 
 
ﺱﻤﺨ 
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
7
:
ﺔﻴﺭﺸﺒ 
 
،
 
ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤ 
)
لﻴﻫﺄﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻯﻭﺘﺴﻤ 
 
،
 
ﺀﺍﺭﺠﻷﺍ
 
ﺩﺩﻋ
...
ﺦﻟﺍ
(
ﺔـﻴﺩﺎﻤ 
 
،
)
ﺕﻻﺁ
 
،
 
ﺝﺎـﺘﻨﻹﺍ
 
ﻥﻜﺎـﻤﺃ
 
ﻥﻭﺯﺨﻤ 
 
،
 
ﺓﺭﻓﻭﺘﻤ 
...
ﺦﻟﺍ
(
ﺔﻴﻤﻴﻅﻨﺘ 
 
،
)
ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺭﺠﺇ
 
،ﺓﺩﻭﺠﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﺒﻗﺍﺭﻤ 
 
،ﺕﺎﻤﻭﻠﻌﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻡﺎﻅﻨ 
...
ﺦﻟﺍ
(
ﺔﻴﺠﻭﻟﻭﻨﻜﺘ 
 
،
)
ﺓﺭﺎﻬﻤ 
 
ﺕﺍﺀﺍﺭﺒ 
 
،
...
ﺦﻟﺍ
. (
ﻑﺎﻀﺃﺎﻤﻜ 
)
R.M.Grant,1991
(
8
 
ﺎـﺴﺩﺎﺴ 
 
ﺎﻤﺴـﻗ 
 
ﺔﻤﺌﺎﻘﻟﺍ
 
ﻩﺫﻫ
 
ﻰﻟﺇ
 
ﻲـﻓ 
 
لـﺜﻤﺘ ﺔﻌﻤﺴـﻟﺍ
 )
Lareputation
(
ﻩﺯﻴﻜﺭﺘ 
 
ﻊﻤ ﺔﺴﻭﺴﺤﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻴﻏ
 
ﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﺩ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 . 
ﻥﺇ
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍﻬﻨﻜﻤﻴ 
 
ﻙﻼﺘﻤﺍ
 
ﺎ ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤ ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺕﺩﻤﺘﻋﺍ
 
ﺎﻤ 
 
ﺍﺫﺇﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴﺍﻕـﻠﺨ 
 
ﻲـﻓ 
 
لﺎﻌﻓ 
 
لﻜﺸﺒ 
 
ﻡﻫﺎﺴﺘ 
 
ﺔﻤﻴﻗ ﻴﻟﺎﺤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺭﻭﺩﻘﻤ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺱﻴﻟ ﻴ ﻥ ﻼﺜﻤﻓ 
 
،ﺎﻫﺩﻴﻠﻘﺘ 
 
ﻥﻴﻠﻤﺘﺤﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺔﻜﺭﺸ 
 
ﻥﺍ
 
ﺩﺠﻨ 
 "
Mc Donald's
"
ﻙـﻠﻤﺘ 
 
ﺕﻨﺎﻜ 
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤ ﺎﻬﻁﺎﺸﻨ 
 
ﺔﻴﺍﺩﺒ 
 
ﻲﻓ ،
 
ﺔﻘﻴﺭﻁ 
 
ﻥﻷﺠﺎﺘﻨﺇﺎﻬ ﺓﺩﹼﻠﻘﻤ 
 
ﻥﻜﺘ 
 
ﻡﻟ 
 
ﺩﻴﺭﻓ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺭﻴﺒﻜ 
 
ﻡﺠﺤﺒ 
 
ﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤ 
 
ﻥﻤ ﺎﻬﻴ ﺕﻗﻭﻟﺍ
 
ﻙﻟﺫ 
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ـﻜ 
 
ﺕﺎﻋﻭﻤﺠﻤ 
 
ﻥﺈﻓ 
 
ﻡﻭﻴﻟﺍ
 
ﺎﻤﺃ
 
،
Harvey's
ﻭﺃ
 
QUICK 
ﻭﺃ
 
Burger 
 
King
ﺕـﻨﺎﻜ 
 
ﻲـﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺇ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺍﻭﻨﻜﻤﺘ 
 
ﺩﻗ 
 
ﺎﻬﻜﻠﻤﺘ 
"
ﺩﻟﺎﻨﻭﺩﻜﺎﻤ 
"
ﺔﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﻷ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻭ ﻓ 
 
ﻲ ﻉﺎﻁﻗ 
 
ﺍﻊﻴﺭﺴﻟﺍ
 
ﺀﺍﺫﻐﻟ ﺔﻓﺎﺜﻜﻟﺍ
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺓﺩﺤﻟﺎﺒ 
 
ﺎﻬﻤﺎﺴﺘﻻ
 
ﺎﻴﻠﻜﻴﻫ
 
ﺔﻤﺌﻼﻤ 
 
ﺕﺴﻴﻟ 
 
لﺎﻜﺸﻹﺍ
 
ﺍﺫﻫ
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﺝﻭﺭﺨﻠﻟ 
 
ﻭ 
 
،ﻥﺎﻜ ﻰﻠﻋ
"
ﻟﺎﻨﻭﺩﻜﺎﻤ ﺩ 
"
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤ 
 
ﻕﻠﺨ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﻥﻫﺍﺭﺘ 
 
ﻥﺃﺎـﻫﺩﺭﺍﻭﻤ 
 
ﻰـﻠﻋ
 
ﺍﺩﺎﻤﺘﻋﺍﺔﻴﻠﺨﺍﺩﻟﺍﺱﻴﻟ 
 
ﻲﺘﻟﺍﺎﻬﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﻤ 
 
ﺭﻭﺩﻘﻤﺒ 
 
ﺎﻫﺩﻴﻠﻘﺘ ﺓﺩﻭـﺠ 
 
ﻭ 
 
ﺓﺩـﻴﺩﺠ 
 
ﺕﺎـﺠﺘﻨﻤﻟ 
 
ﺔﺘﺒﺎﺜﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺩﺎﻴﺯﻟﺍ
 
ﻲﻓ 
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻩﺫﻫ
 
ﺕﻠﺜﻤﺘﻭ 
 
،
 
ﺩﻴﺠ 
 
لﻜﺸﺒ 
 
ﻥﻴﻨﻭﻜﻤ 
 
ﻥﻴﻤﺩﺨﺘﺴﻤ 
 
ﻰﻠﻋ
 
ﺯﺎﻜﺘﺭﻻﺎﺒ 
 
ﻩﺫﻫﻭ 
 
ﺔﻤﺩﺨﻟﺍ
.
ﻤﺍﺩﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺔﻴﺴﻓﺎﻨﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻥﺍﻲﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﺓﺯﻴﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﻙﻠﺘ 
 
ﻲﻫ
 
ﺍﺫﺍ
 
ﺔ 
 
ﻻ
 
ﺔﺴﺴﺅﻤﻟﺍ
 
ﺝﺎﻬﺘﻨﺍ
 
لﻼﺨ 
 
ﻥﻤ 
 
ﻕﻘﺤﺘﺘ ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻠﻟ 
 
ﺔﻘﻟﺎﺨ 
 
ﺔﻴﺠﻴﺘﺍﺭﺘﺴ ﻑﺭـﻁ 
 
ﻥـﻤ 
 
ﺓﺩﻤﺘﻌﻤ 
 
ﺭﻴﻏ
 
ﻭ ﻭﺃ
 
ﻲﻟﺎـﺤ 
 
ﺱﻓﺎـﻨﺘﻤ 
 
ﻱﺃلﻤﺘﺤﻤ 
. 

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