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Stephen DeMeulenaere - An Overview of Parallel Local and Community Currency Systems, 101 Pages

Stephen DeMeulenaere - An Overview of Parallel Local and Community Currency Systems, 101 Pages

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Published by Local Money
Stephen DeMeulenaere - An Overview of Parallel Local and Community Currency Systems, 101 Pages
Stephen DeMeulenaere - An Overview of Parallel Local and Community Currency Systems, 101 Pages

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Published by: Local Money on Mar 10, 2012
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An Overview of Parallel, Local and CommunityCurrency Systems
by Stephen DeMeulenaere, 1998
ContentsIntroduction Acknowledgements Parallel, Local and Community Currencies The Challenge to Find Long-Term Solutions An Introduction to Money and the Conventional EconomyA Brief History of Pre-Money Currency Creation of Money in the Conventional Economy Fiat Parallel Currencies at the National Level The Functions of Money Problems with Conventional Money The Misallocation of Money in the Conventional Economy The Misallocation of Human ResourcesThe Misallocation of Environmental ResourcesUsury: Christian and Islamic Views Introduction to Parallel Currencies The Economic Theory of Parallel Currencies Regional, Local and Community Currencies Fiat, Backed and Mutual Credit Currencies General Benefits of Parallel Currencies Increased Volume of currency in a local areaIncreased Liquidity in a local areaIncreased Access to the Local MarketIncreased Possibility of Local Import SubstitutionIncreased Employment OpportunitiesIncreased Importance of Traditionally Undervalued ActivitiesDiscouragement of environmentally destructive activitiesIncreased Support for Small Enterprise DevelopmentIncreased Strengthening of Social RelationshipsExhibition of a counter-cyclical economic tendencyArguments Against Parallel Currencies Cause a reduction in economic efficiencyParallel currency systems are a source of inflationParallel currency systems encourage tax evasionParallel currency systems abuse the Social Security SystemParallel currency systems are unable to finance investmentsParallel currencies are easily counterfeitedLead to an Informalization of the EconomyBad parallel currency drives out good conventional currency
 Trade Creation and Trade Substitution The Legality of Parallel Currencies Parallel Currencies in North America and EuropeFiat Parallel Currencies at the Local level The Wara Currency in GermanyThe Wara Currency in AustriaNorth America Depression ScripThe HOURS SystemCriticisms of Fiat Parallel CurrenciesImproving Fiat Parallel CurrenciesFiat Parallel Currencies at the National Level Pol
yi's Proposal for a National Domestic CurrencyBacked Parallel Currencies for Commercial Enterprises Larkin Merchandise BondsSwitzerland's WIR CurrencyWIR in North America: The Toronto DollarDeli Dollars: Financing through Merchant BondsThe Community WayBacked Parallel Currencies at the Local Level America: The "Constant" Currency of Ralph BorsodiGermany: Railway MoneyIssuing a Commodity-Backed Local CurrencyMutual Credit Parallel Currencies at the Local Level The Local Exchange Trading System (LETS)Fundamentals of the LETSystemHow LETS WorksHow LETS Currency is IssuedAn Economic Analysis of LETSThe LETS EconomyVariants of the LETS System DesignNegative InterestThe Account Holder's AgreementBenefits of LETS SystemsCriticisms of LETS SystemsLow-Tech LETS: Running a LETS System by HandMutual Credit Parallel Currencies at the Regional LevelMulti-LETSMutual Credit Parallel Currencies for Commercial EnterprisesCommercial Trade ExchangesMutual Exchange CanadaBenefits of Participating in Mutual Credit Trade ExchangesThe Local Economy's "Balance Sheet"Parallel Currencies in the Africa, Asia and Latin AmericaFiat Parallel Currencies at the Local Level:Senegal's "Bons de Travail"Disadvantages of the 'Bons' programFiat Currencies at the Regional Level: Salta Provincial Bonds 
 Backed Parallel Currencies at the Local Level Brazil's Curitiba ScripIndia's BONUS Scrip Backed Parallel Currencies at the National Level Democratic Republic of Congo ProposalMutual Credit Currencies at the Local Level Argentina's Red Global de Clubes de Trueque Multireciproco Ecuador's SINTRAL Rumihuaico SINTRALToctiuco SINTRALMexico's Tianguis Tlaloc How the Tlaloc Currency is IssuedAdvantages of the Tlaloc SystemDrawbacks of the Tlaloc SystemImplementing a Parallel Currency System Analyzing the local area: Identifying key factorsA Sense of Purpose, a Reason for Being: The WedgeA Sense of CommunityAvailability of TimeThe Need to TradeDiversity of Goods and Services AvailableInvolvement of Local BusinessExisting Local Capacity to Manage a SystemAvailability of TechnologyDesigning a Parallel Currency System The Type and Physical Appearance of the Parallel CurrencyDisseminating Information about Offers & RequestManaging the System, and the Money SupplyEntrance and User FeesThe Unit of ValueParallel Currencies and Existing Local Development Initiatives Parallel Currencies and Tontines or Credit UnionsParallel Currencies and MicrocreditParallel Currencies and Labour-Intensive ProjectsParallel Currencies and Community Health PromotionParallel Currencies and Skills DevelopmentParallel Currencies and Environmental ProgramsParallel Currencies and Appropriate Technology (AT) InitiativesParallel Currencies and Fair Trade OrganizationsParallel Currencies in Post-Conflict/Disaster Situations

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