Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002)“Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia.”
IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds
, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.
Malaysia are severed by public sewerage system in 1999. The present connected sewerage systemconsists of approximately more than 10,000 km of sewers and about 7000 connected smallwastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The small WWTPs consist of communal septic tanks(55%), Imhoff tanks (13%), WSPs (10%) and mechanical-based plants which are mainly activatedsludge type (22%). Besides the public sewerage service Malaysia also has 1.2 million individualseptic tanks serving more than 6 million people [Hamid and Muda, 1999].The objective of this study was to analyze an exiting WSP, located in a residential area in TamanSri Pulai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia in order to understand the performance of the treatment processes.This was conducted by wastewater characterization in various points in the WSP. The primaryparameter to be measured was OUR, in which a detailed information about the organic fractions inthe wastewater will be provided. The organic fractions are relevant because it shows thebiodegradability of organic matter in the wastewater as typically used in activated sludge plants(Henze
., 1987). In addition, OUR has never been used to measure the performance of amunicipal WWTP in Malaysia.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe WSP in Taman Sri Pulai consists of a facultative pond and maturation pond, in which thedegradation of the wastewater is performed by a combination of aerobic, anaerobic and facultativebacteria. In general, a facultative pond is designed to an overall BOD
removal efficiency at 80-95%. At the same time, a high degree of coliform removal is assured even with a 30-day-retentiontime. The maturation pond is designed to provide a secondary effluent polishing. Taman Sri Pulai islocated on the foot of a small hill with the highest point in the northeastern corner and the lowest atthe pumping station south of the ponds. The WSP covers the residential area of approximately 0.7km
and PE of 10,327 and receiving municipal wastewater primarily from toilets, bathrooms andkitchens. It has not been possible to collect detailed information about sewer slopes and lengths, butmanually measurements performed at the northeastern sub-catchment area shown a slope of 13 to14% [Frederiksen and Nielsen, 2001]. The sewer lines in this sub-catchment have a diameter of 32cm, which supposedly is the same for all of the residential area. Most of the sewer pipes in thecatchments area are gravity pipes, which are normally not fully loaded that allow re-aeration of thewastewater in the gravity pipes causing aerobic conditions. The minimum oxygen concentrationmeasured in gravity pipe in the northeastern sub-catchment was 3.5 mg O
/L [Frederiksen andNielsen, 2001]. This means that the gravity pipes may not contain products from anaerobic processsuch as VFAs, H
S and CH
.More than 50% of the residential area was connected with the pumping station and the pressurepipe, which makes the pressure pipe important for the whole sewer system. This pumping stationwas not leading a continuous stream, but occasionally emptied. Frequently operational problemswith the pumps causes filled pipes in the lower parts of the catchments area. Due to this, largeamount of the total wastewater flow is anaerobic, which causes a production of anaerobic productssuch as H
S. The WSP is located about 50 m from the nearest residential building. Very close to theponds are a public school and a new residential area. The effluent from the WSP was discharged toSkudai River. The water quality of the river was slightly polluted in terms of heavy metals, greaseand oil, nutrients and organic matters.