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Performance Analysis of a Waste Water Stabilization Pond in Malaysia

Performance Analysis of a Waste Water Stabilization Pond in Malaysia

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Published by: ashoori79 on Mar 10, 2012
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Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002)“Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia.”
IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds 
, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.
PERFORMANCE
 
ANALYSIS
 
OF
 
WASTEWATER
 
STABILIZATION
 
PONDS
 
USING
 
RESPIROMETRY
 
IN
 
MALAYSIA
 
Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T.**
* Institute of Environmental & Water Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai,Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Email:zaini@utm.my ** Department of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholsvej 57, DK9000,Aalborg, Denmark. Email:thj@civil.auc.dk  
ABSTRACT
 Improving and upgrading the existing sewerage system was the main agenda in water pollution control in Malaysia at the moment. The present infrastructures include small and decentralised plants were inadequatein terms of performance efficiency, as well as service coverage. Improving and upgrading the existingsewerage system in the Malaysian context, among others, include a possibility of centralization of themunicipal wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this study was to analyse the performance of awaste stabilization pond (WSP) system and the possibility to upgrade the WSP for future centralized wastewater treatment plants. By wastewater characterization and evaluation, primarily using respirometry,it is found that the performance of the WSP in this study was not even met with the Malaysian effluent Standard B.
INTRODUCTIONIn the recent years, the Malaysian Government has focused on improving and upgrading theexisting sewerage system and facilities, which is inadequate in terms of treatment efficiency. Inmany cases, the effluent quality has not met the effluent standards required by the authority.Untreated and inadequate treatment of wastewater has been the major factor in causing severepollution of rivers and near-shore areas, which consequently increased the health risk for the publicin Malaysia since the rapid industralisation and urbanization programmes in the 1980s.Improvements and upgrading of the existing sewerage system include, among others, re-engineeringin management and financial system, development of new sewer networks and other sewerageinfrastructures, as well as centralization of the small and decentralised municipal wastewatertreatment facilities in major cities. The present Government policy is to change numerable andpoorly equipped sewerage treatment plants to fewer, larger and more efficient centralisedwastewater treatment plants to meet the effluent Standard A (BOD 20 mg/l, COD 50mg/l and SS 50mg/l).Due to heavy rainfall, Malaysia has separated municipal sewer system from urban drainage.Municipal wastewater is led through closed municipal sewers underground, whereas rainwater isdisposed of in open drain channels. In Malaysia, no industrial wastewater is allowed to dischargeinto public sewerage system. Municipal wastewater is disposed of in both connected andunconnected sewerage systems. Unconnected sewerage means that the wastewater is led either toprivate septic tank or discharged directly to the environment. Around 12 out of 23 million people in
1
 
Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002)“Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia.”
IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds 
, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.
Malaysia are severed by public sewerage system in 1999. The present connected sewerage systemconsists of approximately more than 10,000 km of sewers and about 7000 connected smallwastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The small WWTPs consist of communal septic tanks(55%), Imhoff tanks (13%), WSPs (10%) and mechanical-based plants which are mainly activatedsludge type (22%). Besides the public sewerage service Malaysia also has 1.2 million individualseptic tanks serving more than 6 million people [Hamid and Muda, 1999].The objective of this study was to analyze an exiting WSP, located in a residential area in TamanSri Pulai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia in order to understand the performance of the treatment processes.This was conducted by wastewater characterization in various points in the WSP. The primaryparameter to be measured was OUR, in which a detailed information about the organic fractions inthe wastewater will be provided. The organic fractions are relevant because it shows thebiodegradability of organic matter in the wastewater as typically used in activated sludge plants(Henze
et al
., 1987). In addition, OUR has never been used to measure the performance of amunicipal WWTP in Malaysia.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe WSP in Taman Sri Pulai consists of a facultative pond and maturation pond, in which thedegradation of the wastewater is performed by a combination of aerobic, anaerobic and facultativebacteria. In general, a facultative pond is designed to an overall BOD
5
removal efficiency at 80-95%. At the same time, a high degree of coliform removal is assured even with a 30-day-retentiontime. The maturation pond is designed to provide a secondary effluent polishing. Taman Sri Pulai islocated on the foot of a small hill with the highest point in the northeastern corner and the lowest atthe pumping station south of the ponds. The WSP covers the residential area of approximately 0.7km
2
and PE of 10,327 and receiving municipal wastewater primarily from toilets, bathrooms andkitchens. It has not been possible to collect detailed information about sewer slopes and lengths, butmanually measurements performed at the northeastern sub-catchment area shown a slope of 13 to14% [Frederiksen and Nielsen, 2001]. The sewer lines in this sub-catchment have a diameter of 32cm, which supposedly is the same for all of the residential area. Most of the sewer pipes in thecatchments area are gravity pipes, which are normally not fully loaded that allow re-aeration of thewastewater in the gravity pipes causing aerobic conditions. The minimum oxygen concentrationmeasured in gravity pipe in the northeastern sub-catchment was 3.5 mg O
2
 /L [Frederiksen andNielsen, 2001]. This means that the gravity pipes may not contain products from anaerobic processsuch as VFAs, H
2
S and CH
4
.More than 50% of the residential area was connected with the pumping station and the pressurepipe, which makes the pressure pipe important for the whole sewer system. This pumping stationwas not leading a continuous stream, but occasionally emptied. Frequently operational problemswith the pumps causes filled pipes in the lower parts of the catchments area. Due to this, largeamount of the total wastewater flow is anaerobic, which causes a production of anaerobic productssuch as H
2
S. The WSP is located about 50 m from the nearest residential building. Very close to theponds are a public school and a new residential area. The effluent from the WSP was discharged toSkudai River. The water quality of the river was slightly polluted in terms of heavy metals, greaseand oil, nutrients and organic matters.
2
 
Ujang Z.*, Christensen C.L.**, Milwertz L.,** Thomsen M.H.,** Vollertsen J.** and Hvitved-Jacobsen T. (2002)“Performance analysis of wastewater stabilization ponds using respirometry in Malaysia.”
IWA Conference on Waste Stabilization Ponds 
, April 2002, Auckland, New Zealand.
DesignThe detailed design of the WSP could not be acquired from the contractor. However it is assumedthat the WSP was designed according to the standard practices similar to other facultative andmaturation ponds suggested in Metcalf and Eddy (1991). The WSP is surrounded by tall trees andthereby partly sheltered from the wind. This is considered to reduce the mixing of the pondvolumes. The WSP is connected in series, where the first pond is a facultative pond and the secondpond is a maturation pond. Figure 1 shows the double pond system. The ponds cover an area of 17,725 m
2
and the depths were thoroughly measured in this study to be on average of 1.55 m and1.40m for the facultative pond and maturation pond, respectively. The volume of the facultativeponds is 16,275m
3
and the volume of the maturation pond is 10,115 m
3
.
 
1
 2222
N
MaturationPondsFacultativepondOutletInletFigure 1: Outline of the WSP in Taman Sri Pulai.Note: (1) = Venturi canal. (2 = overflows. (
, O,
,
) = sampling points
To analyze the performance and the treatment process of the WSP, the wastewater wascharacterized by the following parameters: oxygen uptake rate (OUR), temperature, pH, dissolvedoxygen, COD, SS and VSS, TS, VS, ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen, flow, transport timein sewer.METHODSSampling For Wastewater CharacterizationSamples were taken for wastewater characterization from the sampling points on daily basis for theperiod of three months. Table 1 shows the parameters that were measured.
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