Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Prelab Alum

Prelab Alum

Ratings: (0)|Views: 70 |Likes:
Published by Minhh Pham

More info:

Published by: Minhh Pham on Mar 10, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/10/2012

pdf

text

original

 
 
Minh Pham3-10-2012PrelabAluminum
Introduction
Aluminum is the 3
rd
 
most abundant element in the earth’s crust. This experiment
will demonstrate a chemical technique for recycling used aluminum. We will prepare thecompound potassium aluminium sulfate dodecahydrate.
KAl(SO
4
)
2 *
12 H
2
O. Alum is usedin paper industry, in processing pickles, in dying fabrics and in water purification as well aswastewater treatment. Aluminum is a reactive metal which reacts slowly with dilute acids. Therate of reaction is slowed by an aluminum oxide layer which protects the surface of metal.Alkaline (basic) solution attact after dissolving the oxide layer. Excess base converts thealuminum to the tetrahydroxoaluminate III ion. This ion is only stable in basic solution. Upon theslow addition of acid (H
2
SO
4
), the hydroxide will be removed. Giving Al(OH)
3
fom a whiteflocculent precipitate. Continued addition of acid dissolves the Al(OH)
3
precipitate
,
eventuallyforming the hydrated aluminum cation [Al(H
2
O)
6
]+
3
. One can also dissolve the
Al(OH)
3
precipitate by addition of alkali reforming the [Al(OH)
4
)]
-
complex. This kind of behavior, ahydroxide which is soluble in either acid or base is called amphoteric.Alums are ionic compounds which crystallize from solutions containing the sulfate anion, amonovalent cation and a trivalent cation. Common cations used are K
+
,Na
+
,NH
4+
,Al
3+
,and Fe
3+
.Crystals of alums may grow to considerable size given the right conditions. These crystals formas cubes or octahedral, with the crystal lattice containing a total of 12 water molecules. 6 watemolecules are bound tightly to trivalent cation, and six water molecules are bound loosely to themonovalent cation and sulfate anion
Reaction
2Al(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 6H
2
O(l)
2K
+
(aq) + 2[Al(OH)
4
]
-
+ 3H
2
(g)2K
+
(aq) + 2[Al(OH)
4
]
-
(aq) + H
2
SO
4
2Al(OH)
3
+ 2 H
2
O(l) + H
+
(aq) + 2K
+
(aq) + SO
42-
(aq)2Al(OH)
3
+ 3H
2
SO
4
2 Al
+3
+ 3SO
4-2(aq)
+ 3H
2
O(l)K
+
(aq) + Al
+3
+ 2SO
4-2
+ 12 H
2
O(l)
KAl(SO
4
)
2
12H
2
O(s)
Overall:
2Al(s) + 2KOH(aq) + 22 H
2
O(l) + 4H
2
SO
4
 
2[ KAl(SO
4
)
2
12H
2
O(s)] + 3H
2
(g)
Procedure Observation
1. Weight about 1g of Al metal & place in 250 mL beaker2. Add 25mL 2.8M KOH to beaker. (what happen ?)3. Wait for 5 mins and then heat the beaker gently4. If liquid level in beaker drop down, add some to maintain volume5. Vacuum filtered after heat to remove any undissolved material

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->