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Enercon Homework 4

# Enercon Homework 4

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09/11/2014

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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINESCubao, Quezon CityELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONAssignment No. 4Chapter 5
“DIRECT CURRENT
MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS
Submitted by: Ezekiel M. BrizuelaEC41FA1Engr. Jurieve BagayInstructorJanuary 22, 2012Date

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1. What is meant by a load on a generator? A load on a motor?
A load on a generator constitutes the electrical devices that convert electrical energyinto other forms of energy. The load on a motor constitutes the force that tends tooppose rotation which is called a countertorque.2. List several practical types of loads applied to motors.
The practical types of loads that applied to motors are: fan blades, pumps, grinder,boring mills, crushers, excavators, elevators, turntables, churns, drills, food mixersand host of other commonly used machines.3. When the load changes, what tends to change in a generator? In a motor?
The voltage regulator tends to change when the load changes; in shunt generators, aload increase is always accompanied by a drop in terminal voltage, while incompound generators, the voltage may fall, rise or even remain constant as the loadchanges. In case of the motor, the speed of rotation tends to change as the loadvaries; an increase in load causes the speed of a shunt motor to drop slightly that of acompound motor to drop considerably, and that of a series motor to drop greatly.4. What methods are usually employed to adjust the voltage of a generator? The speedof a motor?
The voltage of a generator can always be adjusted by doing these methods: (1)changing the speed and (2) changing the strength of the magnetic field. The speedof rotation of a dc motor can be employed by varying either or both of two things: (1)the strength of the magnetic field and (2) the voltage impressed across the armatureterminals.5. Generally speaking, what factor is kept constant when a generator is in operation?When a motor is in operation?
For all practical purpose, it is usually true that the impressed emf across the motorterminals is substantially constant, except in the case of special motors orapplications in which the power supply constitutes a separate source; in such cases,the voltage of the generator is varied to change the speed of the motor.

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6. Are generators started under load? Explain.
Generators are always started without electrical loads; the procedure is to bringthem up to speed, adjust the voltage and then close the main switch that permits themachine to deliver current.7. Are motors started under load? Explain.
Motors may or may not have a mechanical load when they are started; as a matterof practical significance, it is quite customary for a motor to start a load that is oftenequal to or greater than the rated name-plate value.8. Is it possible to operate a dc generator as a motor and vice versa? Explain.
In fact, they may often be operated either as generators or motors with completesatisfaction if certain conditions are fulfilled. In some cases, when a dynamic orregenerative braking is employed, they operate as motors most of the time and asgenerators during the braking periods.9. Name the three general types of dc motor.
The tree general types of dc motors are: (1) series motor, (2) shunt motor and (3)compound motor.10. Indicate, in general way, how the speeds of the three types of dc motor are affectedby an increase in load.
In general, if a change from no mechanical load to full mechanical load causes thespeed to drop approximately 8 percent or less, the moor is said to be constant-speed type
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shunt motor falls into this classification. Motor in which the speedchanges by greater value than indicated here are regarded as falling into thevariable-speed of classification; series and compound motor falls into this.11. What is meant by a constant-speed motor? What type of motor exhibits constant-speed characteristics?
A motor might be regarded as falling into the constant-speed class, when the
variation is as much as 10 or 12 percent. The point is that the terms “constantspeed” and the “var
iable-
speed” are relative, like “tall” and “short” and must be
applied advisedly in each particular instance.