(Ten Books on Architecture)
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
Treatise written by the Roman writer, architect and Engineer - Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron,the emperor Caesar Augustus as a guide for building projectsThe work is one of the most important sources of modern knowledge of Roman building methods aswell as the planning and design of structures, both large (aqueducts, buildings, baths, harbours) andsmall (machines, measuring devices, instruments
Renaissance architects rejected the intricacy and verticality of Gothic for the simplicity andbalanced proportions of classicism
The revival of the classical world of Greece and Rome
began in Florence Italy witharchitecture playing a major a key role
Spread all over Europe, in the15
centuries. This includes France, Germany, Holland,Spain and England.
The rediscovery of Vitruvius during the Renaissance greatly influenced the revival of classicismin 1414 and subsequent periods.
Numerous architectural treatises were based in part or inspired by Vitruvius, beginning withLeon Battista Alberti's
De re aedificatoria
The structure must exhibit the three qualities of
firmitas, utilitas, venustas
- it must be strong ordurable, useful, and beautiful.
Architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humansconstructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements.
When perfecting the art of building, the ancient Greek invented the architectural orders: Doric,Ionic and Corinthian - It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding theproportions of the greatest work of art: the human body.