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Renaissance Architecture PDF 3.11.12

Renaissance Architecture PDF 3.11.12

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03/08/2014

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Renaissance Architecture
De architectura
(Ten Books on Architecture)
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
Treatise written by the Roman writer, architect and Engineer - Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron,the emperor Caesar Augustus as a guide for building projectsThe work is one of the most important sources of modern knowledge of Roman building methods aswell as the planning and design of structures, both large (aqueducts, buildings, baths, harbours) andsmall (machines, measuring devices, instruments
RENAISSANCE
(15
th
-16
th
c.)
 
Renaissance architects rejected the intricacy and verticality of Gothic for the simplicity andbalanced proportions of classicism
 
The revival of the classical world of Greece and Rome
 –
began in Florence Italy witharchitecture playing a major a key role
 
Spread all over Europe, in the15
th
and 16
th
centuries. This includes France, Germany, Holland,Spain and England.
 
The rediscovery of Vitruvius during the Renaissance greatly influenced the revival of classicismin 1414 and subsequent periods.
 
Numerous architectural treatises were based in part or inspired by Vitruvius, beginning withLeon Battista Alberti's
De re aedificatoria
(1485).
 
The structure must exhibit the three qualities of 
 firmitas, utilitas, venustas
- it must be strong ordurable, useful, and beautiful.
 
Architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humansconstructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements.
 
When perfecting the art of building, the ancient Greek invented the architectural orders: Doric,Ionic and Corinthian - It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding theproportions of the greatest work of art: the human body.
 
2
 
Vitruvian Man, by Leonardo da Vinci - the human body inscribed in the circle and the square(the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order).
 
Development of Renaissance :
 1.
 
Renaissance , Early Renaissance, Quattrocento (ca14
th
-15
th
)2.
 
High Renaissance, Proto-Baroque , Cinquecento (1500
 –
1525)3.
 
Late Renaissance (1520-1600)1.
 
Palladio2.
 
Baroque3.
 
Mannerism4.
 
GENERAL FEATURES OF RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE
:1.
 
PLANS
 
Square, symmetrical, planned appearance in which proportions are usually based on amodule. Within a church the module is often the width of an aisle.
 
3
 
Towers are sparingly used while the dome is the predominant feature externally.
 
Dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior,and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally.2.
 
FACADE
 
Symmetrical around their vertical axis.
 
Church facades are generally surmounted by a pediment.
 
Columns and windows show a progression towards the center.
 
Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice.There is a regular repetition of openings on each floor, and the centrally placed door is marked by afeature such as a balcony, or rusticated surround.
 
and the centrally placed door is marked by a feature such as a balcony, or rusticatedsurround.
 
Pediments are low-pitched or semi-circular

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