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Curriculum and its Elements

Curriculum and its Elements

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Published by Doods Galdo
things to understand on curriculum design
things to understand on curriculum design

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Published by: Doods Galdo on Mar 12, 2012
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ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM
 Anecito Zito G. Galdo, MA
Curriculum in narrow view includes content and examination. In wider framecurriculum includes aims, learning methods and subject matter sequencing. Broaderconcept of curriculum describes it as a sophisticated blend of educational strategies, coursecontent, learning outcomes, educational experiences, assessment, the educational
environment and the individual students’ learning style, personal timetable and the
program of work.Curriculum not only covers the formal teaching/learning but also the other aspectsof human development associated with institutional life. It will transform a student into aproductive citizen.In the time of information explosion, the curriculum planners must not only decidewhat should be taught but also what can be eliminated from the curriculum, hence the needto define minimum essential knowledge and skills i.e. core knowledge and skills.
The term curriculum is a Latin word meaning “the course of a chariot race”
(Schubert, 1986). Traditionally curriculum included two elements: content and examination(Harden and Stamper, 1999). According to Burton & McDonald (2001) it is difficult toprovide a simple dictionary definition for this term because of its complex nature. Simply itcan be considered as the list of topics taught in the school or in an institution. In wider viewit encompasses all the experiences that the student undergoes through while being part of that institution.Strength of the curriculum is beyond the written documents produced by the faculty.Harden et al. (1997) said that a curriculum should be viewed not simply as an aggregate of separate subjects, but rather as a program of study where the whole is greater than the sumof the parts. According to Garcia-Barbero (1995) curriculum is the result of bringing togethera number of elements - content, strategies and methods
 –
to ensure quality in educationand excellence in performance, but should have a right mix of elements to ensure efficiencyand to facilitat
e learning. Harden (2001) has elaborated on this concept “a curriculum is a
sophisticated blend of educational strategies, course content, learning outcomes,educational experiences, assessment, the educational environment and the individual
students’ lear
ning style, personal time
table and the program of work”.
 
 
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Barnett (2000) states “curricula in higher education are to a large degree ‘hiddencurricula’… They take on certain patterns and relationships but those patterns and
relationships will be hidden from all concerned, except as they are experienced by the
students”.
 Curriculum should force learning process which is as similar as possible toprofessional activities (Garcia-Barbero, 1995).One way is to deliver instructionsimultaneously in an integrated fashion e.g. teaching basic sciences in the clinical contextalong with psychosocial and ethical issues integrated into the cases (Miller et al., 2000).The curriculum is a coherent unit of planned activities that are undertaken by alearner during his entire learning career under the coaching of the university. Thecurriculum indicates what objectives must be achieved by the student and what tasks mustbe fulfilled in order to achieve these.A curriculum always primarily relates to an entire study program and consists of course subjects and possibly groups of course subjects. Traditionally content has alwaysbeen considered the most important and relevant component of the curriculum.Course is a subset of a program of study (equivalent to a module or unit of study).Academic staff, in collaboration with support staff, has the expertise to design and delivercourses based upon knowledge of student's needs. The design of course should be donethrough very specific institutional procedures. The each faculty should poses clear,documented procedures for proposing, planning, internal approval, and validation of course, involving external and internal peer judgment. The Faculty Regulations provide theframework for course design.Outcome-based education and a performance-based approach help to process of curriculum development in a way that offers a powerful and appealing way of reforming andmanaging medical education. The emphasis is on the product -what sort of doctor will beproduced- rather than on the educational process. In outcome-based education theeducational outcomes are clearly and specified. These determine the curriculum contentand its organization, the teaching methods and strategies, the courses offered, theassessment process, the educational environment and the curriculum timetable. They alsoprovide a framework for curriculum evaluation. It encourages the teacher and the studentto share responsibility for learning and it can guide student assessment and courseevaluation. What sort of outcomes should be covered in a curriculum, how should they be
 
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assessed and how should outcome-based education be implemented are issues that need tobe addressed.
Components of the Curriculum
The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized maycomprise which we call a curriculum design.
Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and Objectives
 Aims: Preschool, Elementary, and SecondaryGoals: School Vision and MissionObjectives: educational objectivesDomains:1. Cognitive
 –
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation2. Affective
 –
receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization3. Psychomotor
 –
perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response,adaptation, origination
Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
 Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge (a compendium of facts,concepts, generalization, principles, theories).1. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents therepository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to
man’s exploration of his world
 2. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the indi
vidual’s personal and
social world and how he or she defines reality.
Gerome Bruner: “Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure toregularities in experience
 Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum:1. self-sufficiency
 –
 
“less teaching effort and educational resources, less learner’s effort but
more results and effective learning outcomes
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most economical manner (Scheffler, 1970)2. significance
 –
contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, developlearning skills3. validity
 –
meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational andsocial value

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