2should be, then surely we need to ask two sets of questions from the start. The first set includesthese two: how are those norms established? And how have they changed over time? Thesecond set follows from the first: how best do we judge the current norms that govern policeconduct on campus, and how, if at all, ought those norms to be changed. Indeed, if we are askingwhether the actions do or do not conform to norms, are we then conceding that there are noavailable rules or standards that have already been established by the Police Review Board, theBrazil Report, or other university offices?
Or are we saying that the police, in fact, did operateaccording to accepted norms, and that what we have seen, and will see, are the expressions of anew normative regime?If we are restricted to asking whether or not police action conforms to existing norms,that does not really allow us to question whether the development of current norms are legitimateor not. In other words, as the video shows, new norms have come into play that establishexcessive and unprovoked force on the part of police against students and faculty practicingclearly established forms of non-violent civil disobedience.What we are witnessing historically at this juncture is the development of a new set of protocols that engage military techniques against students and faculty engaging in forms of protest that have been, for decades, regarded as expression of free speech and the freedom of assembly.
These same actions are now re-named as ³threats to campus security´, suggesting aviolent or destructive set of actions. It cannot be the case that the non-violent expression of ideas ± in this case, ideas about the enduring value of affordable public education ± are themselvesthreats to the university. The threat to the university clearly comes first from the fact that itsfunding has been cut back massively in recent years, and that students acquire debt in the midstof an imperiled education, and go through their days with a damaged sense of their own future,the closing down of possibilities. And the threat to the university emerges as well through thetraining and unleashing of a police force against students and faculty who are engaged in aneducational project, and whose viewpoints, their non-violent modes of expression have beencruelly renamed as criminal. Indeed, it is not only the security of the university that is clearlythreatened when the unleashing of violent police force becomes the norm, but when what isattacked is the right of free assembly, the rights of protest, the exercise of freedom, and the