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Notes on the Batwing 3

Notes on the Batwing 3

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Published by Stephen Dunifer

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Published by: Stephen Dunifer on Nov 29, 2008
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06/30/2014

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otes on the Batwinghttp://www.cebik.com/vhf/bwc.html1 of 1324/02/07 5:28 PM
Notes on the BatwingPart 3: Modeling Issues with the Batwings
L. B. Cebik, W4RNL
In most antenna articles, we usually encounter models used for design or analysis. In most cases, wereceive the models as if they were perfect, with the possible exception of a few minor variables related tothe construction side of the ledger.However, few models are perfect, not only relative to the physical implementation of the antenna, but asmodels themselves. Antennas with linear and uniform-diameter elements come closest to perfection, butwhen we complicate the geometry, model adequacy--as a model--becomes a question that we cannot--or atleast, should not--ignore. The batwing antenna is a case in point. Its complexity--both physically andelectrically--demands that we examine how good the models are on which we have based our discussion.
Some Basic Modeling Issues
Throughout this series, we have presented the models of the batwing as "proof-of-principle" models. Thatis, we developed a model adequate for certain analytical purposes, but without some of the details of theusual physical batwing antennas. A minor variant is the pointed corners on the model, when mostimplementations use rounded corners. A far more major item is the omission of the central mounting mastcommon to most implementations. As a result of these changes and omissions, the models can show usthe potentials of the antenna, but they are not adequate design vehicles, except for sharp-corneredbatwings that use a non-conductive support mast.The basic model that we used throughout Parts 1 and 2 of this series used a 435-MHz design frequencyand had the following physical specifications, with all dimensions on this EZNEC model description ininches.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .batwing 435 Frequency = 435 MHz.Wire Loss: Aluminum -- Resistivity = 4E-08 ohm-m, Rel. Perm. = 1--------------- WIRES ---------------Wire Conn. --- End 1 (x,y,z : in) Conn. --- End 2 (x,y,z : in) Dia(in) Segs1 W15E1 -6.500, 0.000, 8.830 W21E1 -0.250, 0.000, 8.830 1.25E-01 122 W15E2 -5.180, 0.000, 5.880 W21E2 -0.250, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 103 W16E2 -3.880, 0.000, 2.940 W22E2 -0.250, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 74 W17E2 -2.560, 0.000, 0.000 W23E2 -0.250, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 45 W18E2 -3.880, 0.000, -2.940 W24E2 -0.250, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 76 W19E2 -5.180, 0.000, -5.880 W25E2 -0.250, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 107 W20E2 -6.500, 0.000, -8.830 W26E2 -0.250, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 128 W27E1 0.250, 0.000, 8.830 W33E1 6.500, 0.000, 8.830 1.25E-01 129 W27E2 0.250, 0.000, 5.880 W33E2 5.180, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 1010 W28E2 0.250, 0.000, 2.940 W34E2 3.880, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 711 W29E2 0.250, 0.000, 0.000 W35E2 2.560, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 412 W30E2 0.250, 0.000, -2.940 W36E2 3.880, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 713 W31E2 0.250, 0.000, -5.880 W37E2 5.180, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 1014 W32E2 0.250, 0.000, -8.830 W38E2 6.500, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 1215 W1E1 -6.500, 0.000, 8.830 W16E1 -5.180, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 616 W2E1 -5.180, 0.000, 5.880 W17E1 -3.880, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 6
 
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17 W3E1 -3.880, 0.000, 2.940 W18E1 -2.560, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 618 W4E1 -2.560, 0.000, 0.000 W19E1 -3.880, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 619 W5E1 -3.880, 0.000, -2.940 W20E1 -5.180, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 620 W6E1 -5.180, 0.000, -5.880 W7E1 -6.500, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 621 W39E1 -0.250, 0.000, 8.830 W22E1 -0.250, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 622 W2E2 -0.250, 0.000, 5.880 W23E1 -0.250, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 623 W3E2 -0.250, 0.000, 2.940 W24E1 -0.250, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 624 W41E1 -0.250, 0.000, 0.000 W25E1 -0.250, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 625 W5E2 -0.250, 0.000, -2.940 W26E1 -0.250, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 626 W6E2 -0.250, 0.000, -5.880 W40E1 -0.250, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 627 W39E2 0.250, 0.000, 8.830 W28E1 0.250, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 628 W9E1 0.250, 0.000, 5.880 W29E1 0.250, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 629 W10E1 0.250, 0.000, 2.940 W30E1 0.250, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 630 W41E2 0.250, 0.000, 0.000 W31E1 0.250, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 631 W12E1 0.250, 0.000, -2.940 W32E1 0.250, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 632 W13E1 0.250, 0.000, -5.880 W40E2 0.250, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 633 W8E2 6.500, 0.000, 8.830 W34E1 5.180, 0.000, 5.880 1.25E-01 634 W9E2 5.180, 0.000, 5.880 W35E1 3.880, 0.000, 2.940 1.25E-01 635 W10E2 3.880, 0.000, 2.940 W36E1 2.560, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 636 W11E2 2.560, 0.000, 0.000 W37E1 3.880, 0.000, -2.940 1.25E-01 637 W12E2 3.880, 0.000, -2.940 W38E1 5.180, 0.000, -5.880 1.25E-01 638 W13E2 5.180, 0.000, -5.880 W14E2 6.500, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 639 W1E2 -0.250, 0.000, 8.830 W8E1 0.250, 0.000, 8.830 1.25E-01 140 W7E2 -0.250, 0.000, -8.830 W14E1 0.250, 0.000, -8.830 1.25E-01 141 W4E2 -0.250, 0.000, 0.000 W11E1 0.250, 0.000, 0.000 1.25E-01 1-------------- SOURCES --------------Source Wire Wire #/Pct From End 1 Ampl.(V, A) Phase(Deg.) TypeSeg. Actual (Specified)1 1 41 / 50.00 ( 41 / 50.00) 1.000 0.000 VGround type is Free Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The model is a NEC model, with all modeling done on NEC-4 (both EZNEC and GNEC). It has 41 wiresand 271 segments. Of course, when we stacked and turnstiled batwings, we multiplied the number ofsegments and wires. Adding wire-grid reflectors produced some models with well over 1,000 segments.Hence, adequate study of a batwing antenna system requires a modeling program with a considerablesegment limit.
 
otes on the Batwinghttp://www.cebik.com/vhf/bwc.html3 of 1324/02/07 5:28 PM
Fig. 1
shows the outline of the model that corresponds to the description above. From the beginning, wehave a number of modeling decision that we must make. First, we must choose a segment length. Thesmallest gap between the two halves of the antenna sets the segment length at about 0.5". Since it isadvisable to have all segments within an inter-connected model the same length, we used 0.5" as thestandard segment length. It is especially important to keep the segment number and length the same on thewires that parallel each other at the array center, since they are closely spaced. However, the dipoles withinthe array are not so far apart that we can completely ignore alignment.Because we wished to center the source on the most central wire in the antenna, we used a single segmentfor it. It would have been better to have 3 segments on this wire in order to separate the 4-way junctionsfrom the source segment by at least one segment. But here, we encounter another limitation. It is desirableto keep segment length at least the same, and preferably longer, than the maximum wire diameter used inthe model. Some models used up to 0.25" diameter wire (and some trial models used even fatter wire). 3segments on a 0.5" wire reduces the segment length to 0.167", too short for the larger wire sizes--indeedtoo short for wires above about 1/8" in diameter. As well, the more complex the geometry, the moreimportant it usually is to keep the segment length considerably longer than the wire diameter. So thedecision to use a single segment for the 3 connecting wires between the wings is a compromise, and weshall examine the consequences of that compromise as we proceed.

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