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Biologi - Biology Chapter 5

Biologi - Biology Chapter 5

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Published by Dwi Puji Astini

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Published by: Dwi Puji Astini on Nov 29, 2008
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What we have learned earlier
Plants and animals differ in their growth.The stem grows towards light and the roots grow towards water.The leaves of Mimosa plant fold themselves on touching.The roots of mangrove trees grow upwards. Some plants climb on supports.Plant hormones influence activities like growth of stem, flowering etc.Artificial hormones can be utilized for stimulating processers such as rooting,flowering etc.The hormones produced by endocrine glands control physiological activities.Over production and under-production of some hormones causeabnormalities in growth.
CHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION INCHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION INCHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION INCHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION INCHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION INLIVING ORGANISMSLIVING ORGANISMSLIVING ORGANISMSLIVING ORGANISMSLIVING ORGANISMS
5
 
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Y
ou have already learned about therole of nervous system in controlling andco ordinating life activities of organisms. Theactivities controlled by nervous system arethose which happen quickly. But, activitiessuch as growth, reproduction, maintenanceof glucose level in blood, reabsorption of water in kidneys etc. that take place regularlyalso need to be regulated. The chemicalsthat regulate such activities are calledhormones. The hormones co-ordinatevarious activities that take place within andbetween cells, by chemical means.You may be aware of the different stagesin the metamorphosis of a butterfly. Thisstepwise and systematic process is causedby the action of certain hormones (eg: Juvenilehormone, ecdysone). Life activities such ascell division in invertebrates like hydra,reproduction in flatworm are also regulatedby hormones. The hormones also controlactivities like maintenance of osmotic andionic balance in vertebrates like fishes,migration in birds and so on. The hormoneshave been identified even in unicellularorganism like protozoa. Similarly, hormonesplay a significant role in regulating severalbiological activities in human beings as well.In this chapter, we will study some of the important hormones and their functions.We will also study the hormones that regulatethe activities in plants viz. growth, movement,flowering and shedding of leaves and theirbeneficial use in the field of Agriculture.
Hormones in human beings
We know that the digestive glandsproduce enzymes involved in digestion.These enzymes are secreted from the glandsthrough specific ducts to their sites. But theglands which secrete hormones have noducts. The hormones are transported to theirtarget sites of action through circulation.Therefore, these glands are called endocrine
hypothalamuspitutory glandadrenal glandpancreasgonads
Figure 5.1
Various endocrine glands
thyroid glandthymus gland
 
CHEMICAL CO-ORDINATION IN LIVING ORGANISMS
83
We shall now study the functions of thyroxine. They include :
Break down of food and release of energy
Growth and activity of the brain
Growth of body
Maintenance of healthy skin
Heart-beatLet us see how abnormal secretion of Thyroxine affects various functions in ourbody.
Hypothyroidism
A condition caused by under-productionof Thyroxine. It is characterized by :Low energy productionBloating of bodySlowing down of heart-beatLoss of appetite, lethargyDry skin
Hyperthyroidism
A condition caused by over-productionof Thyroxine. The symptoms are :
Energy production increases
Emaciation of body
Increased heart-beat
Increased appetite
Frequent sweating
Shivering of hands
The symptoms due to the deficiency of thyroxine are clear from the above mentionedpoints. Apart from these, it also causes acondition characterized by the retardation of mental and physical development. Thiscondition is termed cretinism. But in adultthe deficiency of thyroxie leads to a diseaseglands or ductless glands. The hormoneshave action only in a target organ or tissue.Observe the figure 5.1 and study thevarious endocrine glands in the human bodyand their position. We shall now learn aboutthe various hormones and their functions.
Thyroid Gland
This is the largest endocrine gland in thehuman body. Study the figure 5.1 and findits position. Have you noticed the two lobesof this gland? The thyroid gland produces
Figure 5.2
Thyroid gland
the hormone called Thyroxine. Iodine isrequired for the production of this hormone.Have you heard of goitre? What are itssymptoms? The enlargement of thyroid glanddue to deficiency of iodine in blood is termedgoitre. This condition can be prevented byeating small fishes and vegetables whichcontain iodine.
parathyroid glandthyroidgland

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