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Biologi - Biology Chapter 2

Biologi - Biology Chapter 2

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Published by Dwi Puji Astini

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Published by: Dwi Puji Astini on Nov 29, 2008
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What we have learned earlier
Heart, blood vessels and blood are parts of the circulatory system.Food materials, respiratory gases and excretory products are transportedby blood.Heart has four chambers. It acts as a double pump, receiving oxygenatedblood from the lungs and sending it to the different parts of the body, andreceiving deoxygenated blood from the body and sending it to the lungs.Arteries carry blood from heart to different parts of the body and veinscarry blood to the heart.Haemoglobin contained in red blood corpuscles absorbs oxygen.Haemoglobin gives red colour to blood.vitamins B
and Folic acid are important in the formation of red bloodcorpuscles. Vitamin K is essential for the clotting of blood.Haemophilia is a hereditary disease.
ou have studied how digested foodmaterials from the alimentary canal reach thebody cells. In the same way oxygen fromthe lungs reaches the body cells and wasteproducts of metabolism from the cells reachthe excretory organs. This process of transporting materials to the different partsof the body requires a special mechanism.What is this mechanism?Let us see how materials are transportedin simple organisms as well as in complexanimals like man. In man, the circulatorysystem does many other functions in additionto the transport of materials. Let us study inthis chapter how the composition of blood isadapted for this and how the blood transportsmaterials. In plants, water and other materialsare transported to different parts by specialmethods.
The transport of materials in plants
You have learned that water from thesoil enters the roots of plants by osmosis andis carried up to the leaves through the xylemvessels. Try the following experiment.Cut out short branches of Balsam,Peperomia and Eupatorium and keeps theirlower ends dipped in red ink. After aboutthree hours, take thin cross sections of thestem and examine under the microscope.Compare what you see with figure 2.1.
In which tissue is red colour seen?
Which tissue is found outside this?Examine the sections of the differentstems by the same method and record yourfindings in the science diary.
Figure 2.1
L.S of a stem
If longitudinal sections of the stem areexamined, the xylem vessels can be seenarranged one above the other in a linearmanner as fine capillary tubes (fig 2.2). Thereare many small passages in the cross wallsseparating the tubes. What must be theirfunction?How does the water absorbed by theroots ascend in the xylem vessels?that the position of the air bubble has changedin jar B. How did the bubble rise up in the jar B? You know that the water moleculeshave the property of sticking together. Thisis known as the cohesion force. The waterin the xylem vessels of the leaves is in contactwith the water in the glass tube. Due totranspiration, water is lost from theintercellular spaces of leaves through thestomata. This causes a fall in the pressure of the water in the leaf cells and water fromneighbouring cells enters into these cells.What will be the result of this process? Asuction force is created in the leaf and thiscauses water to enter the leaves through thefine xylem vessel to make up for the loss of water. This suction force is transmitted tothe water column in the xylem down to theroots. In addition to the transpiration pull,the pressure developed in the roots due toTry to perform the following experiment.Arrange to set up the apparatus as shown infigure 2.3. The plant branches selectedshould be fixed at the top of the long glasstube filled with water. Before fixing the glasstubes in the glass jars, make sure to admit anair bubble inside the lower end of the tube.Allow the set up to remain for some time.After some time, compare the position of theair bubble in the three glass tubes. You notice
Figure 2.3
Experiment to show the rise of water level dueto transpiration
water isglass rodairbubbleswaterbranch of with leavesbranch withoutleavesairbubblesairbubbles
Figure 2.2
L.S. of Xylem

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