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Table Of Contents

1.1A Brief History of Pest Management
1.2Causes of Pest Outbreaks
1.3The Stakeholders in Pest Management
1.3.1Governments, politics and funding agencies
1.3.2The research scientists
1.3.3 Commercial companies
1.3.4Farmers and growers
1.3.5Customers and consumers
1.3.6Balancing costs and benefits
Sampling, Monitoring and Forecasting
2.2.1Random, stratified random and systematic sampling
2.2.2Sample size
2.2.3Sample independence and interaction
2.3Population Estimates
2.3.1Absolute estimates
2.3.2Relative estimates
2.3.4Development and growth
2.3.5Survival and mortality
2.3.6 Migration
2.4Monitoring Strategies and Objectives
2.4.1Surveys, field based and fixed position monitoring
2.4.2Biology and nature of attack
2.4.3Availability and suitability of monitoring techniques
2.5.1Action thresholds
2.5.2Temperature and physiological time
2.5.3Predictive models
2.5.4Geographic Information Systems
2.6 Discussion
3.2Approaches and Objectives
Yield Loss
3.3Measurement of Yield Loss
3.3.1Pest intensity
3.3.2Types of pest damage
3.3.3Measures of yield and yield loss
3.4Crop Loss Surveys
3.5Plant Growth Analysis and Modelling
3.5.1Crop growth models
3.5.2Modelling plant physiological processes
3.6 Manipulative Techniques
3.6.1 Artificial infestation
3.6.2 Simulated damage
3.6.3Control of initial levels of infestation
3.7Paired Treatment Experiments
3.8Field Trials: Principles
3.9Economics of Yield Loss
3.9.1Infestation and yield loss
3.9.2Economic threshold concept
4.3 Classes of Chemical Insecticides
4.3.1 Organochlorines
4.3.2 Organophosphates
4.3.3 Carbamates
4.3.4 Pyrethroids
4.3.5 Insect growth regulators
4.3.6New classes and insecticide leads
4.4.1 Solutions
4.4.2 Emulsion concentrates
4.4.3 Water dispersible powders
4.4.4 Suspension concentrates
4.4.7 Granules and pellets
4.4.8 Fumigants
4.4.9 Controlled release formulations
4.4.10 Spray adjuvants
4.5.3Factors influencing the target and pick-up
4.6Application Equipment
4.7The Farmer/User Requirements
4.7.1Ease of use
4.7.3Economic viability
4.8Insecticide Resistance
4.9 Ecotoxicology
4.9.1 Non-target arthropods
4.9.2Other organisms
4.9.3Fate of insecticides in air, soil and water
4.9.4 Insecticide residues
4.10Rational Insecticide Use
4.10.1Timing of insecticide application
4.10.2Dosage and persistence
4.10.3Selective placement
4.11 Discussion
5.2Objectives and Strategies
Host Plant Resistance
5.3Genetics of Virulence and Resistance
5.3.1The pathosystem concept
5.3.2The vertical pathosystem
5.3.3The horizontal pathosystem
5.3.4The gene-for-gene model and biotypes
5.4.2Inbred pure lines
5.4.3 Open-pollinated populations
5.4.4 Hybrids
5.4.6 Backcross breeding
5.4.7Breeding for horizontal resistance
5.4.8Breeding trials design
5.5Evaluating Resistance
5.5.1Mechanisms of resistance
5.5.2Evaluating antixenosis and antibiosis
5.5.3Morphological and biochemical bases of resistance
5.5.4Diagnostic characters and genetic markers
5.6Genetic Manipulation
5.6.1Techniques in genetic manipulation
5.6.2Genetic manipulation for insect resistance
5.7Durable Crop Resistance to Insects
5.8 Discussion
6.2 Objectives and Strategies
Biological Control
6.3Micro- and Macro-biological Control Agents
6.3.2 Predators
6.4Agent Selection
6.4.1Pests and cropping system
6.4.2Biocontrol agent selection criteria
6.5Predator–Prey Theory and Analytical Models
6.5.1The general model
6.5.2Equilibrium levels
6.5.3 Stability
6.5.4Metapopulation dynamics and models
6.5.5Multiple species models
6.5.6Life table analysis
6.6.1Field survey, collection and observation
6.6.2Dissection and biochemical techniques
6.6.3Exclusion/inclusion methods
6.6.4Insecticidal check method
6.6.5Behavioural studies and prey enrichment studies
6.6.6Ranking of natural enemies
6.7Classical Biological Control
6.7.1Target pest identification and area of origin
6.7.2Foreign exploration, selection and field evaluation
6.7.3Quarantine and mass production
6.7.4Release and establishment
6.7.5Post-establishment evaluation
6.8Inundation and Biopesticides
6.8.1 Biopesticide development
6.8.2Production of pathogens
6.8.3Use of biopesticides
6.9Augmentation and Inoculation with Natural Enemies
6.9.1Mass rearing of natural enemies for release
6.9.2Costs and benefits
6.10 Conservation Biological Control
6.10.1 Habitat refuges
6.10.2Food sources
Cultural and Interference Methods
7.2Approaches and Objectives
7.3Condition of the Host
7.4Modifying the Physical Environment
7.4.1Physical barriers and mulches
7.5Agronomic Practices
7.5.1Crop rotation
7.5.2 Tillage practices
7.5.3Planting date
7.5.4Sowing/planting density
7.6Mixed and Intercropping
7.6.1Ecological theory and experimentation
7.7.1Types of behaviour modifying chemicals
7.7.2Mass trapping
7.7.3Mating disruption
7.7.4Lure and kill target systems
7.7.5Manipulating natural enemies
7.8Sterile Insect Technique and Autosterilization
7.8.1Autosterilization systems
Legislation, Codes of Conduct and Conventions
8.2 Quarantine Regulations
8.3Regulation of Pesticides
8.4Regulation of GMOs
8.5The Convention on Biological Diversity
9.2Defining the Problem
9.2.1Historical profile
Programme Design, Management and Implementation
9.2.2Seasonal profiles and damage matrices
9.2.3Interaction matrices
9.2.4Decision trees
9.2.5Understanding the farmer
9.3Programme Design
9.3.1Research status analysis
9.3.2Selection of control measures – pest types
9.3.3Selection of control measures – types of control
9.3.4Selection of control measures – operational factors
9.3.5Objectives and strategies
9.4Programme Management
9.4.1 Organizational structures
9.4.2Management as an integrating activity
9.4.3Management training for scientists
9.5Delivery of Research Results
9.5.1Simulation models
9.5.2Expert systems
9.5.3Linear programming
9.5.4Goal programming
9.5.5Decision trees
9.5.6 Dynamic programming
9.6Implementation and Adoption
9.6.1Conditions for change
9.6.2Reasons for failure to adopt new technologies
9.6.3Extension services
9.6.4Farmers’ Field Schools
10.2Working IPM Systems
10.2.1Pest management in soybean
Driving Forces and Future Prospects for IPM
10.2.2Pest management in cotton
10.2.3Pest management in greenhouse crops
10.2.4Lessons learnt
10.3Panaceas, Paradigms and Pragmatism
10.5A Question of Scale?
10.5.1Sustainable use of control measures
10.5.2Levels of integration
10.6Technological Advances and Commerce
10.7Politics, the Public and the Environment
10.8 Conclusion
10.8.1 The problem
10.8.2A framework for the future
10.8.3And finally
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Insect Pest Management

Insect Pest Management

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Published by yechezkiel

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Published by: yechezkiel on Mar 13, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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