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Micro 23

Micro 23



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Published by hamza jassar

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Published by: hamza jassar on Nov 29, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Thanks Anas hijjawi
Thanks Sameer shwaiki
Introduction to virology
Viruses can infect all organisms (humans , plants,animals , even viruses themselves could be infected byother viruses),that's why they are described as significantpathogens.Viruses have shaped the history of mankind as follows:-
1(Outbreak of poliomyelitis caused millions of paralyzedindividuals , Paralytic illness that spread in the lastcentury in the developed countries.2(Building of panama canal by the French failed due tothe outbreak of yellow fever that disseminated theirforces and killed millions in the 19
century.3(Influenza still spreading in annual epidemics in everycountry as well as pandemic across the countries every20-30 years . One such epidemic known as Spanish Fluwhich spreaded at the end of the first world war (1918-1919) with the killing of at least 20 million people ,pessimistic writers says it killed 100 million!!!!! So itchanged the history by changing the course of the warand killing millions of Germans , according to the chief staff of the German forces accused influenza of being thecause of defeat of German troops. It killed 140thousandAmerican soldiers more than those killed by the waritself .
s Sameer shwaiki
 Thanks Anas hijjawi
Thanks Sameer shwaiki
Nowadays there is a potential risk of the spreadingepidemic flu.
 Viruses' structure-:
A nucleic acid (RNA , DNA , But not both) core surrounded by aprotein coat might have a 3
phospholipids bilayer , with thissimple structure they enter the cell and redirect its machinery toproduce their own components and they are produced in largeamounts and their nucleic acids amplified then they areassembled together to produce new viruses which leave the cellto infect other cells , and do the same to them and so on.Here you should note that viruses do not copy themselves.As if viruses exist just to transfer nucleic acids from one cell toanother.Because when they are outside the cell, they do not replicateand they are completely inert. In bacteria they have animportant impact, the term transduction, transfer of geneticmaterial from one bacterial cell to another by a virus, and thisgenetic material may code for an important function, like toxicproduction in diphtheria, also streptococci which becomevirulent in lysogenic cycle and the same for staphylococci, whichbecome resistant to methicillin and other penicillins as aconsequence of the acquisition of the resistant gene by a virus.Viruses are incapable of multiplying outside the cells and needto infect cells to multiply, so we can't regard them asmicroorganisms, they are just examples assemblage of nucleicacid and proteins, and so they can be viewed as extra-cellularorganelles.
s Sameer shwaiki
Epidemic : in one countryPandemic : in more than one country
 Thanks Anas hijjawi
Thanks Sameer shwaiki
Despite the simple structure of the viruses they have morediversity than all the kingdoms all put together, they haveadapted to infect all of these living organisms.Viruses are submicroscopic obligate intracellular parasites thatdiffer from all living organisms in many aspects:- look below toknow these aspects They are very small in size(10-300 nm). The largest ispox virus which has a diameter of 300 nm, can barely beeseen by light microscope(resolution power is about 200nm) but most viruses can't be seen by the lightmicroscope due to the small size.Viral particles are produced from the assembly of preformed components. Within the infected cells proteinsare synthesized by coding from viral genes as the virusesdirects the machinery of the infected cells to synthesizeits proteins, it also utilizes some enzymes replicate itsgenome. Certain viruses have the enzymes necessary forthe replication of its genome. Then genome and proteinsassemble together to form a complete virus.Viruses lack the genetic information for the generation of metabolic energy for protein synthesis, which areribosome; this contributes for their incapability of notmultiplying outside living cells.Other agents that cause diseases in different systemsthat confound the concept about viruses(nucleic acid coresurrounded by protein coat), they are very close toviruses but are not typical viruses-:
s Sameer shwaiki

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