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17SEAGC Cipularang Masyhur Irsyam

17SEAGC Cipularang Masyhur Irsyam

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10
The 17 
th
Southeast Asian Geotechnical ConferenceTaipei, Taiwan, May 10~13, 2010 
ATC-03-03
Bored Pile Solution for Embankment Failure on Clay Shale:Design and Analyses of Static and Earthquake Conditionsof the KM 97+500 Cipularang Toll Road in Indonesia
Masyhur Irsyam
1
, Agus Himawan
2
,Endra Susila
1
, andHendriyawan
1
1
 Department of Civil Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
2
Geotechnical Engineering Division, PT. LAPI ITB, Bandung, Indonesia E-mail 
: masyhur.irsyam@yahoo.co.id
ABSTRACT:
The Cipularang Toll Road was built in 2004 to 2005 to connect two main Indonesian cities: the capital city of Jakarta and thecapital city of the West Java province Bandung. The toll road passes through hills and valleys on clay shale of the Miocene Djatiluhur Marlformation. In early February 2006, slope failure occurred on a road embankment at Km 97+500. The embankment is on clay shale. This paper presents causes and mechanism of the slope failure, the selected slope reinforcement system and analyses for both static andearthquake conditions. The strength degradation of the clay shale due to exposure and records of slope movement monitoring wereconsidered in the back calculation to simulate the failure mechanism by the finite element method. The elastic plastic constitutive model andthe Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria were selected to model soils. The dynamic finite element analysis was also performed to check deformation on bored pile under earthquake loading. A synthetic acceleration time-histories at bedrock was generated to represent groundmotion of the 500 year return period of earthquake. The performed analyses and records of field slope monitoring showed that a group of 1.0m diameter of bored piles is effective to stabilize the slope.Based on the document of original design, the original top soilconsists of weathered soft clay shale with an approximate thicknessof 0.3 to 2.0 m. Even though the top soft soil has been stripped off  prior to fill work, soil investigation performed after slope failurerevealed that a layer of the original soft clay shale was still founddirectly below fill embankment, especially below the toe of slope.Back calculation by slope stability analysis confirmed that the slopefailure had occurred on the soft clay shale. Irsyam et al. (2007)concluded that shale loses its shear strength due to soilstripping/excavation which next has resulted in quick weathering.
1. INTRODUCTION
The Cipularang Toll Road was constructed in 2004 to 2005 toconnect two major cities: the capital city Jakarta and the capital cityin west Java province Bandung and the surrounding area. Since being opened for public transportation in March 2005 the toll roadhas become its major role for the economic growth for Bandung andits surrounding area. Due to its topographical and geologicalconditions, the highway have to pass hills and valleys on clay shaleof the Miocene Djatiluhur Marl formation (Irsyam et al., 2006).After approximately one year operation, slope failure occurredon a road embankment on clay shale at Km 97+500 in earlyFebruary 2006 (Fig. 1). Fig. 2 shows slope monitoring result andcrack on road pavement along the median curb. The figureindicated that failure plane started from toe of embankment to thetop of embankment at the median of the highway.
2. CLAY SHALE AND ITS BEHAVIORS
Shale is a fine grained sedimentary rock formed from clayscompacted by pressure. Shale is generally characterized by thinlaminae breaking with an irregular curve fracture, often splinteryand usually parallel to the often – indistinguishable bedding plane(Wikipedia, 2007). Shales are typically deposited in very slowmoving water and are often found in lake and lagoonal deposits, inriver deltas, on floodplains and offshore of beach sands (Wikipedia,2007). The main engineering behavior of shale is that it is very hard,however, once it is exposed to sunrays, air, and water within arelatively short time it will become soft clays (muds). Its strengthand volume stability are time dependent.Stark and Duncan (1991) concluded that the shear strength of the desiccated clay decreases very rapidly to the fully softenedstrength when the clay is soaked. Skempton (1977) concluded thatheavily overconsolidated clay is usually firm and stable and hascomparatively high shear strength at its original condition. When theclay is subjected to a cyclic loading, the strength decreases graduallyfrom the fully softened to its residual value. Skempton (1977) foundthe peak strength parameters of the clay are: c’ = 14 kN/m
2
and
=20
o
. Gartung (1986) observes that water absorption duringunloading process of a clay - that is originally dry and hard withhigh shear strength - rapidly turns into stiff or even to soft clay withan extremely low shear strength. As the weathering processcontinues, the shear strength distribution of the soil profile changeswith time (Irsyam et al., 2007). For design, Gartung (1986)suggested to use the reduced parameters for the long term conditionof 
= 20
o
and c
= 20 kN/m
2
. Based on triaxial tests of a LondonClay with the largest triaxial samples (diameter of 250 mm) toinclude a representative assemblage of fissures, Sandroni (1977)found that the cohesion of the larger diameter samples is smaller, c’= 7 kN/m
2
and
= 20
o
.Figure 1 The slope failure at road embankment on clay shale at KM97+500 in February 2006
Dt= 3.16 m= 0.76 mDt= 2.94 m= 0.74 mDt= 1.33 m= 0.74 mDt= 9.0 m= 0.1 m????Crack monitored at the highway median
ROW
 Average Depth, DFailure Plane Thickness, t= 4.30 m= 0.17 m
Figure 2 Predicted failure plane based on field slope monitoringrecordsReferring to the soil investigation results prior to constructionand deep coring after construction, the failure at road embankment
 
110
The 17 
th
Southeast Asian Geotechnical ConferenceTaipei, Taiwan, May 10~13, 2010 
ATC-03-03
slope at KM 97+500 of the Cipularang Toll Road was predictablycaused by strength degradation of the top clay shale due to strippingworks (Irsyam et al., 2007). Unfortunately, laboratory test result onthe exposed clay shale was not available. The shear strength parameters of clay shale at failure condition were evaluated by performing back calculation based on predicted failure condition asindicated on the monitoring result of slope indicators (Fig.2). Soil profile (Fig. 3) and shear strength parameters of other layers weredeveloped based on as-built drawing and the result of deep coringafter slope failure. Parametric study was performed through theslope stability analysis to examine several predicted shear strength parameters of clay shale. The inputted shear strength parameters of clay shale were selected as the parameters when slope stabilityanalysis resulted in the closest slope failure plane with theinterpreted failure plane based on field slope indicators. Slopefailure is indicated by a safety factor value of 1.0. (Irsyam et al.,2007).Figure 3 Soil profile (Irsyam et al., 2007)The back analysis results showed that the calculated shear strength parameters of the degraded soil layer at failure were c=5.0kPa and
=13
o
. These values are comparable with the parameters of soaked residual and remoded residual clays suggested by Stark andDuncan (1991) and residual soils recommended by Skempton (1977) but smaller than the design shear strength and residual parameterssuggested by Gartung (1986). Results of back analysis by a professional finite element software, PLAXIS (Brinkgreve andVermeer, 1998) are presented in Figures 4. As shown in the figures,the slope failure plane occurs at Layer D which is the soft silty claysand weathered clay shale.Figure 4 The predicted slope failure mechanism based on slopestability analysis (Irsyam et al., 2007)
4. BORED PILES FOR REINFORCEMENT OF SLOPE
Due to time and space constrains and topographic condition at thesite a group of bored piles was considered as the most suitablesolution for the failure slope, therefore the reinforcement systemwas selected. With the critical function of the highways, theselected system was still considered cost effective (Irsyam, et al.,2006). This type of reinforcement had successfully overcome slopefailure in a valve chamber of a power plant (Irsyam e et al., 1999).The length of bored piles was selected to be able to cut failure plane.The passive resistance of soil to bored piles below the failure planehad to be large enough to resist failure. Fig. 4 presents the selectedarrangement of group of bored piles for this project. As shown inthe figure the group of bored piles consisted of 2 rows of 18 mlength of bored piles with a diameter of 1.0 m and pile spacing(center to center) of 2.0 m, arranged in a zigzag pattern (Fig. 5).Another finite element analysis was performed to confirm theslope stability of the reinforced slope (by bored piles), thesufficiency number of bored piles to resist bending moment, andadequacy of bore pile length. The bored piles were modelled aselastic plastic beam elements. Bending and axial stiffness parameters are summarized in Table 1. Fig. 6 presents result of finite element analysis after installation of the group of bored piles.The figure shows that failure plane is on top (left side) of bored piles.The analysis result also shows that bored pile has increased thefactor of safety to a value of more than 1.3 and the capacity of  bending moment of group of bored piles is more than the minimumrequired capacity.Figure 6 Cross section of slope reinforcement and bored pilearrangementTable 1 The stiffness parameters of bored pile as beam element
EA EI w
[kN/m
2
][kN/m
2
][kN/m
2
][ - ]1Bored Pile D=1000Elastic39375002577094.70.15
TypeNumber Identification
Figure 6 Result of slope stability analysis after installation of bored piles (SF>1.3)
4. SEISMIC SLOPE STABIITY ANALYSIS
The seismic hazard effects were also considered in the slopereinforcement analysis. Generally, there are four steps involved inassessing seismic load due to earthquake events: (1) collecting andanalyzing earthquake data; (2) developing and characterizingseismic source models; (3) developing and selecting appropriateattenuation relationships; and (4) calculating seismic hazard usingtotal probability theory.In this study, historical earthquake events that influenced tollroad regions were compiled from national and internationalinstitutions such as National Earthquake Information Service U.S.Geological Survey (NEIS-USGS), the Indonesian Bureau of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), The Advanced
ABCDE
FG
 
AB
 
E
 A. Fill material (road bed)B. Fill material (side slope)D. Silty clay and weatheredClay shaleE. Hard clay shaleC. UncompactedMaterial
 
111
The 17 
th
Southeast Asian Geotechnical ConferenceTaipei, Taiwan, May 10~13, 2010 
ATC-03-03
 National Seismic System (ANSS), and the EHB catalog (Engdahl,and Buland, 1998). A composite seismicity catalog for thoseinstitutions covering period between 1908 A.D. to December 2007A.D. and area between 90
o
E to 145
o
E longitudes and 15
o
S to 15
o
 Nlatitude was compiled. After catalog was compiled, eventsof magnitude less than 5.0 and duplicate events were deleted. As theresult of merging the catalog, several events with conflictingmagnitude were encountered, therefore both automatic and manual procedures that incorporate engineering judgment about source-catalog reliability and priority are used to cull duplicate entries fromthe combined catalog.The source models were developed using the earthquakecatalogs, tectonic boundaries, and fault information. Source zoneswere defined on the basis of the distribution and focal mechanismsof the cataloged earthquakes, and on the locations of the earthquakeswith respect to the boundaries of major tectonic plates.Firmansjah and Irsyam (1999) classified the seismic sourcezones of Java Island into three classifications: subduction zone,transform zone, and diffuse seismicity (Fig. 7). In the subductionzone south of Java, the Java segment of the Sunda Arc extends fromSunda Strait on the west to Bali Basin on the east. Java transformzones occurs on clearly defined shallow crustal faults on Java Islandsuch as Sukabumi, Baribis, Lasem, and Semarang Faults. Diffuseseismic zones include all earthquakes that occur in areas whereseismicity is not associated with a single fault or fault type. Most of this diffuse seismicity is found in back arc areas of collision zones,like Flores back-arc faulting behind the eastern end of Sunda Arcand western end of Banda Arc. In this study, seismotectonic model,source mechanism, slip-rate, magnitude maximum and other  parameters refer to the published National and International Journals.Figure 7 The source model for representing of faults surroundingWest Java in the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis(LAPI ITB, 2007)In this study, the analysis utilized the attenuation relationshipsfor subduction zone at rock sites developed by Youngs (1997) andthat for shallow crustal developed by Boore, Joyner, Fumal (1997)and Sadigh (1997) for extension tectonic region. The selection was based on previous study by Firmansjah and Irsyam (2001) for thedevelopment of the Indonesia seismic zone map, which indicatedthat these attenuation functions have a low variability compared toothers.The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) was performed for a 10% probability of exceedance (PE) in a designtime period of 50 years or corresponding to the return period of approximately 500 years. The analysis has implementedseismotectonic model based on 3-D earthquake sources. Similar approaches are used in this study to develop the newly spectralhazard maps for Indonesia. The result of PSHA shows that the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the bedrock for 500 year return periodof earthquake is 0.38g.The seismic hazard study was continued for developingsynthetic time histories at bedrock. The acceleration time-historiesare required in the analysis of shear wave propagation in soildeposits. Selection of time-histories appropriate for specificgeological and seismological conditions plays an important role for obtaining accurate results. The time histories were generated byusing spectral matching method. In this method, synthetic timehistories were generated by modifying the existing time history fromworldwide earthquake events. The actual ground motions fromworldwide earthquakes are selected based on their similarity of their characteristics such as magnitude, distance and site conditions andthen the spectrums are scaled for matching them with the spectrumsfrom probabilistic analyses. The generated synthetic accelerationtime-histories is shown in Fig. 8.
-0.40-0.30-0.20-0.100.000.100.200.300.400 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time (sec)
   A  c  c  e   l  e  r  a   t   i  o  n   (  g   )
Figure 8 The generated synthetic acceleration time histories at bedrock (PGA=0.38 g for return period, T=500 yr)Application of the above synthetic time-histories in seismicslope stability using dynamic finite element calculation showed thatthe total displacement of the bored pile after earthquake loading was predicted about 11 cm. The developed bending moment can still beaccommodated by bored piles. As shown in Fig. 9, the finite elementmesh boundaries were enlarged to model free field condition duringearthquake.
Total displacements
Extreme total displacement 651.02*10
-3
m
Total displacements
Figure 9 The result of seismic slope stability
5. SLOPE CONDITION AFTER BORED PILECONSTRUCTION
Bored piles were constructed around October in 2006. Figure 14illustrates site condition during and after construction of bored piles.
Extreme total displacement 111.85*10
-3
m

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