Southeast Asian Geotechnical ConferenceTaipei, Taiwan, May 10~13, 2010
Bored Pile Solution for Embankment Failure on Clay Shale:Design and Analyses of Static and Earthquake Conditionsof the KM 97+500 Cipularang Toll Road in Indonesia
, Agus Himawan
Department of Civil Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
Geotechnical Engineering Division, PT. LAPI ITB, Bandung, Indonesia E-mail
The Cipularang Toll Road was built in 2004 to 2005 to connect two main Indonesian cities: the capital city of Jakarta and thecapital city of the West Java province Bandung. The toll road passes through hills and valleys on clay shale of the Miocene Djatiluhur Marlformation. In early February 2006, slope failure occurred on a road embankment at Km 97+500. The embankment is on clay shale. This paper presents causes and mechanism of the slope failure, the selected slope reinforcement system and analyses for both static andearthquake conditions. The strength degradation of the clay shale due to exposure and records of slope movement monitoring wereconsidered in the back calculation to simulate the failure mechanism by the finite element method. The elastic plastic constitutive model andthe Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria were selected to model soils. The dynamic finite element analysis was also performed to check deformation on bored pile under earthquake loading. A synthetic acceleration time-histories at bedrock was generated to represent groundmotion of the 500 year return period of earthquake. The performed analyses and records of field slope monitoring showed that a group of 1.0m diameter of bored piles is effective to stabilize the slope.Based on the document of original design, the original top soilconsists of weathered soft clay shale with an approximate thicknessof 0.3 to 2.0 m. Even though the top soft soil has been stripped off prior to fill work, soil investigation performed after slope failurerevealed that a layer of the original soft clay shale was still founddirectly below fill embankment, especially below the toe of slope.Back calculation by slope stability analysis confirmed that the slopefailure had occurred on the soft clay shale. Irsyam et al. (2007)concluded that shale loses its shear strength due to soilstripping/excavation which next has resulted in quick weathering.
The Cipularang Toll Road was constructed in 2004 to 2005 toconnect two major cities: the capital city Jakarta and the capital cityin west Java province Bandung and the surrounding area. Since being opened for public transportation in March 2005 the toll roadhas become its major role for the economic growth for Bandung andits surrounding area. Due to its topographical and geologicalconditions, the highway have to pass hills and valleys on clay shaleof the Miocene Djatiluhur Marl formation (Irsyam et al., 2006).After approximately one year operation, slope failure occurredon a road embankment on clay shale at Km 97+500 in earlyFebruary 2006 (Fig. 1). Fig. 2 shows slope monitoring result andcrack on road pavement along the median curb. The figureindicated that failure plane started from toe of embankment to thetop of embankment at the median of the highway.
2. CLAY SHALE AND ITS BEHAVIORS
Shale is a fine grained sedimentary rock formed from clayscompacted by pressure. Shale is generally characterized by thinlaminae breaking with an irregular curve fracture, often splinteryand usually parallel to the often – indistinguishable bedding plane(Wikipedia, 2007). Shales are typically deposited in very slowmoving water and are often found in lake and lagoonal deposits, inriver deltas, on floodplains and offshore of beach sands (Wikipedia,2007). The main engineering behavior of shale is that it is very hard,however, once it is exposed to sunrays, air, and water within arelatively short time it will become soft clays (muds). Its strengthand volume stability are time dependent.Stark and Duncan (1991) concluded that the shear strength of the desiccated clay decreases very rapidly to the fully softenedstrength when the clay is soaked. Skempton (1977) concluded thatheavily overconsolidated clay is usually firm and stable and hascomparatively high shear strength at its original condition. When theclay is subjected to a cyclic loading, the strength decreases graduallyfrom the fully softened to its residual value. Skempton (1977) foundthe peak strength parameters of the clay are: c’ = 14 kN/m
. Gartung (1986) observes that water absorption duringunloading process of a clay - that is originally dry and hard withhigh shear strength - rapidly turns into stiff or even to soft clay withan extremely low shear strength. As the weathering processcontinues, the shear strength distribution of the soil profile changeswith time (Irsyam et al., 2007). For design, Gartung (1986)suggested to use the reduced parameters for the long term conditionof
= 20 kN/m
. Based on triaxial tests of a LondonClay with the largest triaxial samples (diameter of 250 mm) toinclude a representative assemblage of fissures, Sandroni (1977)found that the cohesion of the larger diameter samples is smaller, c’= 7 kN/m
.Figure 1 The slope failure at road embankment on clay shale at KM97+500 in February 2006
Dt= 3.16 m= 0.76 mDt= 2.94 m= 0.74 mDt= 1.33 m= 0.74 mDt= 9.0 m= 0.1 m????Crack monitored at the highway median
Average Depth, DFailure Plane Thickness, t= 4.30 m= 0.17 m
Figure 2 Predicted failure plane based on field slope monitoringrecordsReferring to the soil investigation results prior to constructionand deep coring after construction, the failure at road embankment