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Doc 01 Quality Principles in Nutshell Part I

Doc 01 Quality Principles in Nutshell Part I



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Published by: Kapildev on Nov 29, 2008
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Syntel CQA Forum Quality Principles in Nutshell Part I CQA Doc No 1Quality Principles
Definitions of Quality
Quality Concepts
Quality Objectives
Quality Attributes
QA v/s QC
Quality Pioneers
Quality Vocabulary
Definitions of Quality
Quality Software and Software Quality
Software that exhibits all the functionalcapabilities and non-functionalattributes that ensure that it can be putto all its intended uses with the leasteffort, inconvenience and resource costto the user is Quality Software
Software Product Evaluation lists sixkey factors in producing QualitySoftware
Definitions of Software Quality
"Quality is Conformance torequirements" - CROSBY
"Software Quality means fitness forpurpose" - OULD
Quality is all the features that allow aproduct to satisfy stated or impliedneeds at an affordable cost - ISO-8402
Definitions of Software Quality
GARVIN gives five views of Quality
It is generally accepted that quality of the process plays a crucial role indetermining the quality of the product
Quality must be built into software fromthe outset - it cannot be added on later
It is people that determine whether ornot a quality product is produced
Quality Concepts
Cost Of Quality
Six Sigma
Continuous Improvement
Best Practices
Software Quality Concepts
Quality is conformance to productrequirements and should be free.
Quality is achieved through preventionof defects .
Quality control is aimed at findingproblems as early as possible andfixing them.
Doing things right the first time is theperformance standard which results inzero defects and saves the expenses of doing things over.
 The expense of quality isnonconformance to productrequirements
Software Quality Concepts
Quality is what distinguishes a goodcompany from a great one.
Quality is meeting or exceeding ourcustomer's needs and requirements.
Software Quality is measurable.
Quality is continuous improvement.
 The quality of a software productcomes from the quality of the processused to create it.
Cost of Quality
Quality costs are the costs associatedwith preventing, finding and correctingdefective work
One of the key functions of a qualityengineer is the reduction of the totalcost of quality associated with aproduct
Prevention Costs
 These are costs of activities specificallydesigned to prevent poorquality(coding errors, design errors,bad documentation, unmaintainablecoding)
E.g., Staff Training, RequirementAnalysis, Fault-tolerant design,defensive programming, usabilityanalysis, clear specification, accurateinternal documentation, evaluation of the reliability of development tools
Appraisal Costs
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Syntel CQA Forum Quality Principles in Nutshell Part I CQA Doc No 1
 These are Costs of activities designedto find quality problems, such as codeinspections and any type of testing
E.g., Design Review, Code Inspection,White box testing, Black box testing,training testers, Beta testing, testautomation, usability testing
Failure Costs
Costs that result from poor quality,such as the cost of fixing bugs and costof dealing with customer complaints
Internal failure costs are failure coststhat arises before your companysupplies the product to customer
External failure costs are failure coststhat arises after your company suppliesthe product to customer
Internal failure Costs
Bug fixes, Regression testing
Wasted in-house user time
Wasted tester time, Wasted writer time
Wasted marketer time
Wasted advertisements
Direct cost of late shipment
Opportunity cost of late shipment
External failure costs
 Technical support calls, Investigation of customer complaints, refunds andrecalls, coding/testing of interim bug fixreleases, shipping of updated product,added expense of supporting multipleversions of the product, lost sales, lostcustomer goodwill, warranty costs,liability costs, penalties.
 Total Cost of Quality = Sum of all costs
Prevention + Appraisal + Internalfailure + External failure
Plan-Do-Check-ActStep 1 Plan - Identify the Problem
Select the problem to be analyzed
Clearly define the problem andestablish a precise problem statement
Set a measurable goal for the problemsolving effort
Establish a process for coordinatingwith and gaining approval of leadership
Step 2 Plan - Analyze the Problem
Identify the processes that impact theproblem and select one
List the steps in the process as itcurrently exists
Map the Process
Validate the map of the process
Identify potential cause of the problem
Collect and analyze data related to theproblem
Verify or revise the original problemstatement
Identify root causes of the problem
Collect additional data if needed toverify root causes
Step 3 Do - Develop Solutions
Establish criteria for selecting asolution
Generate potential solutions that willaddress the root causes of the problem
Select a solution
Gain approval and supporter for thechosen solution
Plan the solution
Step 4 Do - Implement Solutions
Implement the chosen solution on atrial or pilot basis
If the Problem Solving Process is beingused in conjunction with theContinuous Improvement Process,return to Step 6 of the ContinuousImprovement Process
If the Problem Solving Process is beingused as a standalone, continue to Step5
Step 5 Check - Evaluate the Results
Gather data on the solution
Analyze the data on the solution
Achieved the Desired Goal?
If YES, go to Step 6.
If NO, go back to Step 1.
Step 6 Act - Standardize the solution
Identify systematic changes andtraining needs for full implementation
Adopt the solution
Plan ongoing monitoring of the solution
Continue to look for incrementalimprovements to refine the solution
Look for another improvementopportunity
Six Sigma
 The word 'Sigma' is a statistical termthat measures how far a given processdeviates from perfection.
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Syntel CQA Forum Quality Principles in Nutshell Part I CQA Doc No 1
 The significance of Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many defectsyou have in a process, you cansystematically figure out how toeliminate them and get as close to'zero defects' as possible.
Key Concepts of Six Sigma
Critical to Quality: Attributes mostimportant to the customer
Defect: Failing to deliver what thecustomer wants
Process Capability: What your processcan deliver
Variation: What the customer sees andfeels
Stable operations: Ensuring consistent,predictable processes to improve whatthe customer sees and feels
Design: Designing to meet customerneeds and process capability
Critical to Quality
Understanding Customer's needs andexpectations by employing sixapproaches to communicating withcustomer
Measure business performance againstdynamic customer requirements andrespond to changing market placeconditions
Quality function deployment (QFD) andfailure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) can help identify critical toquality characteristics.
Reducing the defect rate
Determining the defect cost
Mistake Proofing techniques eliminatethe sources of errors and ensure that aprocess is free of defects.
Process Capability
Understanding Process Capabilityprinciples and calculating ProcessCapability are integral to stayingcompetitive and meeting customerrequirements.
 Two sources of variation : Commoncause and special cause
Multi-Vari Analysis offers a means of reducing large numbers of unrelatedcauses of variation to a family orelated causes.
Reducing common-cause variation sothat the distribution has a very smallstandard deviation
Stable operations
Operational Excellence methodologyfor identifying the right projects, usingthe right people to lead projects, righttools and roadmap
 Turning quality into a managementsystem
Improving cycle time to processapplications for long term disabilitybenefits
Follow a four phase process to achievedesign. Identify, Design, Optimize andValidate
Design helps eliminate designed-inquality problems that account for 70-80% of defects
Link Six Sigma with QS 9000
 The continuous process of measuringproducts, services, and practicesagainst the toughest competitors andindustry leaders
 The search for industry best practicesthat lead to superior performance
It is not a mechanism for determiningresource reductions
Elements of Benchmarking
A structured process/approach
Involves measuring, evaluating, andcomparing results (and the process of benchmarking)
Focus on best practices/results
Goal is to improve to level of best
Fundamentals of Benchmarking
Focus on key services/processes
Learn from others
Apply what has been learned
Types of Benchmarking
Internal - best within organization
Competitive - best within competition
Functional - best within industry
Collaborative - best within voluntarynetwork
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