The Nervous System
The nervous system controls and coordinates the functions of other systems of the bodyso they work harmoniously and efficiently. The nervous system is composed of the brain, spinalcord, and peripheral nerves. The primary function of the nervous system is to collect a multitudeof sensory information, process, interpret, and integrate that information, and initiate appropriateresponses throughout the body.The functions of the nervous system are:1.To rule the body by controlling all visible and invisible activities2.To control human thought and conduct3.To govern all internal and external movements of the body4.To give the power to see, hear, move, talk, feel, think, and remember Despite the complexity of the nervous system, it consists of only two principal kinds of cells: neurons and neuroglia.
are responsible for most special functions attributed tothe nervous system: sensing, thinking, remembering, controlling muscle activity, and regulatingglandular secretions.
support, nurture, and protect the neurons and maintainhomeostasis of the fluid that bathes neurons.
Neurons and Nerves
A neuron consists of a cell body and its outgrowth of projections called neuronal fibers.There are two types of neuronal fibers: numerous multibranched
that connect withother neurons to
information and a single
impulses away from thecell body. The
stores energy and nutrients that are used by the cellular projections toreceive and conduct nerve impulses throughout the body. The ability of a neuron to receive astimulus is known as
. The ability of a neuron to conduct an impulse is known as
. Impulses are passed from one neuron to another at a junction called a
. When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, a chemical
isreleased at the synapse that acts on the membrane of the receptive neuron to pass the impulsealong.There are three types of neurons classified according to the direction in which theytransmit nerve impulses and the type of information carried.
originate in theperiphery of the body and carry impulses or messages from sense organs to the brain wheresensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, or pain are interpreted and experienced.
carry nerve impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands that they control.
are located in the brain and spinal cord and carry impulses from one neuron toanother. Sensory neurons are also called
neurons. Motor neurons are also called
neurons. Interneurons are also called
neurons.Almost all the nerve cell bodies are contained in the brain and spinal cord, while their fibers extend outward to make up the nerves. A
is a group of neuronal fibers (axons)found in the peripheral portions of the nervous system bundled together by connective tissue likethe strands of a cable. The axons found within a nerve are also individually wrapped by a fattyinsulating material called
Divisions of the Nervous System