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Survey-Reduction of Losses

Survey-Reduction of Losses

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Published by IJRRR

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Published by: IJRRR on Mar 13, 2012
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02/16/2013

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 @n}ctne}`knej Gkstnej ki Tcacn} Tcqcetaf enm Tcy`c|* Ykj. @* Hetaf 4254
E Qstycp ki Kr}`hej Aerea`}kt Rjeachcn} ]cafn`uscq knM`q}t`ds}`kn J`ncq }k Tcmsac Jkqqcq
]ensg Henljen`
5
* P.Q.Qf`qfkm`e
4
 Eqq`q}en} Rtkicqqkt* Mcret}hcn} ki Cjca}t`aej Cnl`ncct`nl* P@]* Ge`rst* @nm`eRtk. YA* GelenNe}f Sn`yctq`}p* Ge`rst* @nm`e
C(he`j7 `m}ensgBtcm`iihe`j.akh
 Edq}tea}(
]k tcmsac }fc jkqqcq `n m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}chq*yet`ksq aerea`}kt rjeachcn} }cafn`uscq feyc dccnq}sm`cm qk iet. ]f`q rerct ikasqcq kn dk}f ajeqq`aej enmet}`i`a`ej `n}cjj`lcnac hc}fkmq. ]f`q qstycp fcjrq }fctcqcetafctq }k onk| edks} ejj }fcqc hc}fkmq qk }fe}ist}fct |kto kn kr}`hej aerea`}kt rjeachcn} aen dcaett`cm }k `hrtkyc }fc tcqsj}q.
 @nmcv ]cthq(
aerea`}kt rjeachcn}* aerea`}kt q`w`nl*kr}`hej aerea`}kt ejjkae}`kn* m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch* rk|ctjkqq tcmsa}`kn* ykj}elc rtki`jc.
 
@. @N]TKMSA]@KNCjca}t`a`}p m`q}t`ds}`kn `q }fc i`nej q}elc `n }fcmcj`yctp ki cjca}t`a`}p itkh }tenqh`qq`kn qpq}ch }kaknqshctq. Cjca}t`a m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}chq etc dcakh`nl jetlc enm akhrjcv aesq`nl }fc tcea}`ycasttcn}q }k rtkmsac jkqqcq enm tcqsj} `n `natceqcmte}`nlq ikt m`q}t`ds}`kn akhrkncn}q. Q}sm`cq feyc`nm`ae}cm }fe} eq hsaf eq 51# ki }k}ej rk|ct lcncte}cm `q |eq}cm `n }fc ikth ki jkqqcq e} }fcm`q}t`ds}`kn jcycj _5X. Q`nac tcmsa}`kn ki jkqqcq `qhktc caknkh`aej }fen `natceq`nl lcncte}`kn}fctciktc* jkqqcq aen dc tcmsacm dp aknnca}`nlaerea`}ktq `n qfsn} }k jkaejjp qsrrjp e aknq`mctedjc rkt}`kn ki }fc tcea}`yc rk|ct mchenmcm dp }fcaknqshctq enm }fctcdp tcmsa`nl }fc tcea}`ycakhrkncn} ki dtenaf asttcn}q _4X. ]fc emyen}elcq|`}f }fc emm`}`kn ki qfsn} aerea`}ktq denoq etc }k`hrtkyc }fc rk|ct iea}kt* iccmct ykj}elc rtki`jc* rk|ct jkqq tcmsa}`kn enm `natceqcq eye`jedjc aerea`}pki iccmctq. ]fc cv}cn} ki }fcqc emyen}elcq mcrcnmq kn}fc jkae}`kn* q`wc* }prc enm nshdct ki }fc aerea`}ktqeq |cjj eq kn }fc`t akn}tkj qc}}`nlq. Q`nac* }fc kr}`hejaerea`}kt rjeachcn} `q e akhrj`ae}cm akhd`ne}kt`ejkr}`h`we}`kn rtkdjch* henp m`iictcn} kr}`h`we}`kn}cafn`uscq enm ejlkt`}fhq feyc dccn rtkrkqcm `n }fc req}.@@. ENEJP]@AEJ HC]FKMQEnejp}`aej hc}fkmq sqcm }fc aejasjsq e} }fc cetj`cq}tcqcetafcq ikt aerea`}kt rjeachcn}q }k aejasje}c }fch`n`hsh jkqqcq enm hev`hsh qey`nlq. ]fcqchc}fkmq |ctc deqcm kn `hrtea}`aej eqqshr}`knq j`ocaknq}en} aknmsa}`kn q`wc* sn`ikth jkem`nl* nknm`qatc}c aerea`}kt q`wcq* cusej aerea`}kt q`wcq enmaknq}en} aerea`}kt jkae}`knq. Msc }k }fcqc enejp}`aejhc}fkmq }fc iehksq }|k(}f`tmq tsjc |eq cq}edj`qfcm.Eaaktm`nl }k }|k(}f`tmq tsjc* e aerea`}kt ki te}`nlcusej }k }|k(}f`tmq ki }fc rceo tcea}`yc mchenmqfksjm dc `nq}ejjcm e} e rkq`}`kn }|k(}f`tmq ki }fcm`q}enac ejknl }fc }k}ej iccmct jcnl}f ikt hev`hshjkqq tcmsa}`kn. ]fc cetjp enejp}`aej hc}fkmq ikt aerea`}kt rjeachcn} etc he`njp mcycjkrcm dp Nceljcenm Qehqkn _1X. ]fc rtkdjch `q mci`ncm eqmc}cth`n`nl }fc jkae}`kn enm q`wc ki e l`ycn nshdct ki i`vcm }prc aerea`}ktq }k h`n`h`wc }fc rk|ct jkqqikt e l`ycn jkem jcycj. Ds} }fc akq} ki aerea`}ktq enm}fc afenlcq `n }fc nkmc ykj}elcq |ctc ncljca}cm.Ist}fct e ykj}elc `nmcrcnmcn} tcea}`yc asttcn} hkmcj|eq ikthsje}cm enm qkjycm dp Akko _=X ) Dec _3X.Jcc
c} ej
. _9X sqcm }fc i`vcm enm q|`}afcm aerea`}ktq|f`af |ctc rjeacm ikt kr}`h`w`nl }fc nc} hknc}etpqey`nlq eqqka`e}cm |`}f }fc tcmsa}`kn ki rk|ct enmcnctlp jkqqcq. Lte`nlct 
c} ej.
_<X rtkrkqcm e ykj}elc
 
4
¢¢
mcrcnmcn} hc}fkmkjklp ikt qfsn} aerea`}kt akhrcnqe}`kn ki rt`hetp m`q}t`ds}`kn iccmctq. Oerjen_6X rtkrkqcm enejp}`aej hc}fkm }k kr}`h`wc nshdct*jkae}`kn enm q`wc ki aerea`}ktq. Lte`nlct 
c} ej.
_0X(_54X ikthsje}cm cus`yejcn} nkthej`wcm iccmctq |f`afaknq`mctcm iccmct qca}`knq ki m`iictcn} aknmsa}kt q`wcq enm nkn( sn`ikthjp m`q}t`ds}cm jkemq.@@@. NSHCT@AEJ RTKLTEHH@NLHC]FKMQ Nshct`aej rtkltehh`nl hc}fkmq etc `}cte}`yc}cafn`uscq |f`af etc sqcm }k hev`h`wc kt h`n`h`wcen kdgca}`yc isna}`kn ki mca`q`kn yet`edjcq. Ikt kr}`hej aerea`}kt ejjkae}`kn* }fc jkqqcq kt }fc qey`nlqisna}`kn |ksjm dc }fc kdgca}`yc isna}`kn. Dsqykj}elcq* asttcn}* aerea`}kt eye`jedjc q`wc enm nshdct ki aerea`}ktq hep dc }fc mca`q`kn yet`edjcq. ]fcyejscq ki }fcqc mca`q`kn yet`edjcq hsq} ejqk qe}`qip eqc} ki aknq}te`n}q. Msten _51X sqcm m`qatc}c aerea`}ktqikt e iccmct |`}f henp qca}`knq ki m`iictcn} |`tc q`wcqenm aknacn}te}cm jkemq enm rtkrkqcm e mpneh`a rtkltehh`nl qkjs}`kn hc}fkm. Rknneye`ok enm Tek_5=X aknq`mctcm jkem ltk|}f eq |cjj eq qpq}chaerea`}p tcjceqc enm ykj}elc t`qc e} j`lf} jkemaknm`}`knq enm sqcm e jkaej kr}`h`we}`kn }cafn`uscaejjcm }fc hc}fkm ki jkaej yet`edjcq dp }tce}`nlaerea`}kt q`wcq eq m`qatc}c yet`edjcq. Deten enm \s_53X
 
mc}cth`nc }fc kr}`hej q`wc ki aerea`}ktq rjeacmkn }fc nkmcq ki e tem`ej m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch enmh`n`h`wc }fc rk|ct jkqqcq ikt e l`ycn jkem dpnknj`ncet rtkltehh`nl sq`nl mcakhrkq`}`kn}cafn`usc. Dejm`ao enm \s _59X sqcm `n}clct usemte}`a rtkltehh`nl }k akktm`ne}c }fc kr}`hejkrcte}`kn ki aerea`}ktq enm tclsje}ktq `n em`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch. _5<X rtkrkqcm e h`vcm `n}clct  rtkltehh`nl ikt }fc kr}`hej jkae}`kn enm q`w`nl ki q}e}`a enm q|`}afcm qfsn} aerea`}ktq `n tem`ejm`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}chq. Lte`nlct enm A`yenjet _56Xakhd`ncm aerea`}kt rjeachcn} enm ykj}elc tclsje}kt  rtkdjchq ikt e lcnctej m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch enm rtkrkqcm e mcaksrjcm qkjs}`kn hc}fkmkjklp.Lte`nlct 
c} ej.
_50X ikthsje}cm }fc rtkdjch eq enknj`ncet rtkltehh`nl rtkdjch dp }tce}`nl }fcaerea`}kt q`wcq enm }fc jkae}`knq eq akn}`nsksqyet`edjcq.@Y. FCST@Q]@A HC]FKMQFcst`q}`aq hc}fkmq etc mcycjkrcm }ftkslf cvrct`cnacenm gsmlchcn}. ]fc rstrkqc ki mcycjkr`nl qsaffcst`q}`a }cafn`uscq `q }k mcatceqc }fc cvfesq}`ycqcetaf qreac* |f`jc occr`nl }fc cnm tcqsj} ki kdgca}`yc isna}`kn e} en errtkv`he}c kr}`hej yejsc.]fc tcqsj}q rtkmsacm dp fcst`q}`aq ejlkt`}fhq etc nk}lseten}ccm }k dc kr}`hej. Qejeh
c}.ej
_42X rtcqcn}q efcst`q}`a q}te}clp |`}f yetp`nl jkem }k tcmsac qpq}chjkqqcq dp `mcn}`ip`nl qcnq`}`yc nkmcq e} |f`afaerea`}ktq qfksjm dc rjeacm. ]fc aerea`}kt q`wc `q }fcyejsc }fe} p`cjmq h`n`hsh qpq}ch tcej jkqqcq |`}fks}y`kje}`kn ki ykj}elc. ]fc rtkacqq `q tcrce}cm ikt }fcncv} aenm`me}c nkmc sn}`j nk ist}fct jkqqcq tcmsa}`kn`q eaf`cycm. _45X rtkrkqcq e hc}fkm ki h`n`h`w`nl}fc jkqq eqqka`e}cm |`}f }fc tcea}`yc akhrkncn} ki  dtenaf asttcn}q dp rjea`nl kr}`hej aerea`}ktq e} rtkrct jkae}`knq. Knac }fc aerea`}kt jkae}`knq etc`mcn}`i`cm* }fc kr}`hej aerea`}kt q`wc e} ceaf qcjca}cmjkae}`kn ikt ejj aerea`}ktq `q mc}cth`ncmq`hsj}encksqjp* }k eyk`m kyctakhrcnqe}`kn e} enpjkae}`kn* }ftkslf kr}`h`w`nl }fc jkqq(qey`nlcuse}`knq. Qejeh
c} ej.
_44X emer}cm }f`q o`nm ki fcst`q}`a qcetaf }k }fc rtkdjch ki aerea`}kt  rjeachcn}. Eaaktm`nl }k }f`q hc}fkm }fc jetlcq} jkqqqca}`kn ki }fc rt`hetp iccmct `q mc}cth`ncm enm }fcn}fc nkmc |`}f }fc f`lfcq} `hrea} kn }fc jkqqcq `n }fe}qca}`kn `q mc}ca}cm enm akhrcnqe}cm. ]fcakhrcnqe}`kn jcycj `q mc}cth`ncm `n qsaf e |ep }fe}}fc jkqqcq etc tcmsacm }k e h`n`hsh. Af`q
c} ej.
_41Xaknq`mctcm }fc yetp`nl jkem enm kr}`h`wcm aerea`}kt q`wcq deqcm kn hev`h`w`nl }fc nc} caknkh`a qey`nlqitkh dk}f cnctlp enm rceo rk|ct jkqq tcmsa}`knq.Feheme
c} ej.
_4=X `n}tkmsacm e nc| q}te}clp ikt aerea`}kt ejjkae}`kn fenmj`nl }fc tcmsa}`kn `n }fcqca}`kn jkqqcq dp emm`nl e nc| ykj}elc y`kje}`knaknq}te`n}. ]fc nc| aknq}te`n} feq dccn }fc qca}`knejkfh`a jkqqcq `n ceaf dtenaf ki }fc iccmct.Y ET]@I@A@EJ @N]CJJ@LCNAC HC]FKMQE@ hc}fkmq `najsmc lcnc}`a ejlkt`}fhq* et}`i`a`ejncstej nc}|kto* q`hsje}`kn ejlkt`}fh* iswwp* RQK*en} ejlkt`}fh. ]fcqc hc}fkmq ikt aerea`}kt ejjkae}`knetc m`qasqqcm dcjk|7
 E.
 
Lcnc}`a Ejlkt`}fh
 
1
¢¢
Lcnc}`a rtkltehh`nl `q deqcm kn }fc Met|`n`en rt`na`rjc ki tcrtkmsa}`kn enm qsty`yej ki }fc i`}}cq}enm enejklksq ki ne}stejjp kaastt`nl lcnc}`akrcte}`knq qsaf eq atkqqkyct 
 
enm hs}e}`kn _43X. F.O`h enm Q.O Pks _49X feyc sqcm lcnc}`a ejlkt`}fhikt kd}e`n`nl }fc kr}`hsh yejscq ki qfsn} aerea`}kt  deno. ]fcp feyc }tce}cm }fc aerea`}ktq eq aknq}en}tcea}`yc rk|ct jkemq. Q. Qsnmfetetegen enm En`jRef|e _4<X rtkrkqcm en kr}`h`we}`kn hc}fkm sq`nllcnc}`a ejlkt`}fh }k mc}cth`nc }fc kr}`hej qcjca}`knki aerea`}ktq. ]k eaf`cyc f`lf rctikthenac enm f`lfcii`a`cnap ki }fc rtkrkqcm ejlkt`}fh* en `hrtkycmemer}`yc lcnc}`a ejlkt`}fh &@ELE _46X `q mcycjkrcm}k kr}`h`wc aerea`}kt q|`}af`nl* enm e q`hrj`i`cm dtenaf cvafenlc ejlkt`}fh `q mcycjkrcm }k i`nm }fckr}`hej nc}|kto q}tsa}stc ikt ceaf lcnc}`a `nq}enac e}ceaf `}cte}`kn ki aerea`}kt kr}`h`we}`kn ejlkt`}fh. @n_40X* e ncq}cm rtkacmstc `q rtkrkqcm }k qkjyc }fckr}`hej aerea`}kt rjeachcn} rtkdjch ikt m`q}t`ds}`knnc}|ktoq. E} }fc ks}ct jcycj* e tcmsacm(q`wc lcnc}`aejlkt`}fh `q emkr}cm e`hcm e} hev`h`w`nl }fc nc} rtki`} eqqka`e}cm |`}f }fc `nycq}hcn} kn aerea`}kt  denoq. E} }fc `nnct jcycj* rk|ct jkqqcq etc h`n`h`wcmikt }fc tche`n`nl jkem`nl aknm`}`knq* }eo`nl `n}keaaksn} }fc aerea`}kt q}crq mc}cth`ncm e} }fc ks}ct jcycj. _12X rtkrkqcm lcnc}`a ejlkt`}fh eq qcetafhc}fkm }k mc}cth`nc kr}`hsh yejsc ki `ngca}cmtcea}`yc rk|ct |f`jc aknq`mct`nl }fc ciica}q ki jkemqfethkn`a akhrkncn} kn nc}|kto.
 D.
 
 Et}`i`a`ej Ncstej Nc}|kto 
E }|k(q}elc et}`i`a`ej ncstej nc}|kto `q sqcm }kakn}tkj }fc aerea`}ktq `nq}ejjcm kn e m`q}t`ds}`knqpq}ch ikt e nkn(sn`ikth jkem rtki`jc _15X. Ls
c}.ej.
 _14X akn}tkj dk}f aerea`}kt denoq enm ykj}elctclsje}ktq sq`nl et}`i`a`ej ncstej nc}|kto. ]fctclsje}`kn ki aerea`}kt denoq dp retejjcj errj`ae}`knki et}`i`a`ej ncstej nc}|kto enm lcnc}`a ejlkt`}fh `q rtkrkqcm `n _11X. ]fc akhd`ncm sqc ki dk}f hc}fkmqki }fc et}`i`a`ej `n}cjj`lcnac ejjk|q qkjy`nl }fctcea}`yc rk|ct enm ykj}elc akn}tkj rtkdjch |`}ff`lfct jcycj ki `}q tcj`ed`j`}p enm usej`}p.
A.
 
Q`hsje}cm Enncej`nl
Q`hsje}cm enncej`nl &QE `q deqcm kn enncej`nl ki he}ct`ejq |f`af `nykjycq fce}`nl enm akn}tkjjcmakkj`nl ki e he}ct`ej }k `natceqc }fc q`wc ki `}qatpq}ejq enm tcmsac }fc`t mcica}q. ]fc fce} aesqcq }fce}khq }k dcakhc snq}sao itkh }fc`t `n`}`ej rkq`}`knq&e jkaej h`n`hsh ki }fc `n}ctnej cnctlp enm |enmct tenmkhjp }ftkslf q}e}cq ki f`lfct cnctlp? }fc qjk|akkj`nl l`ycq }fch hktc afenacq ki i`nm`nlakni`lste}`knq |`}f jk|ct `n}ctnej cnctlp }fen }fc`n`}`ej knc. Dp enejklp |`}f }f`q rfpq`aej rtkacqq*ceaf q}cr ki }fc QE ejlkt`}fh e}}chr}q }k tcrjeac }fcasttcn} qkjs}`kn dp e tenmkh qkjs}`kn. ]fc nc|qkjs}`kn hep }fcn dc eaacr}cm |`}f e rtkded`j`}p }fe}mcrcnmq dk}f kn }fc m`iictcnac dc}|ccn }fcakttcqrknm`nl isna}`kn yejscq enm ejqk kn e ljkdej retehc}ct 
&aejjcm }fc }chrcte}stc* }fe} `q ltemsejjpmcatceqcm mst`nl }fc rtkacqq. Af`enl
c} ej.
_1=X sqcm}fc kr}`h`we}`kn }cafn`uscq deqcm kn q`hsje}cmenncej`nl &QE }k qcetaf }fc ljkdej kr}`hsh qkjs}`kn}k }fc aerea`}kt rjeachcn} rtkdjch. ]f`qhc}fkmkjklp `q rtkrkqcm }k mc}cth`nc }fc jkae}`knq|fctc aerea`}ktq etc }k dc `nq}ejjcm* }fc }prcq enmq`wcq ki aerea`}ktq }k dc `nq}ejjcm* enm }fc akn}tkjqc}}`nlq ki }fcqc aerea`}ktq e} m`iictcn} jkem jcycjq.Enen}feremhenedfe
c} ej.
_13X
 
sqcm QE }k tcmsac }fcakq} isna}`kn |f`af `najsmcq }fc cnctlp enm }fcaerea`}kt `nq}ejje}`kn akq}. ]fc rtea}`aej eqrca}q ki aerea`}ktq* jkem aknq}te`n}q enm krcte}`knejaknq}te`n}q e} m`iictcn} jkem jcycjq etc aknq`mctcm `n_19X |f`af etc qkjycm dp e rk|ctisj q`hsje}cmenncej`nl errtkeaf.
 M.
 
Iswwp Jkl`a Hc}fkm 
]f`q hc}fkm `q deqcm kn iswwp qc}q }fcktp &IQ] |eq`n}tkmsacm dp Wemcf _1<X `n 5093 mcej`nl |`}ftceqkn`nl }fe} `q errtkv`he}c te}fct }fen ajeqq`aejjkl`a. E iswwp yet`edjc `q hkmcjcm dp e hchdctqf`risna}`kn |f`af eqq`lnq e mcltcc ki hchdctqf`r }k eqc}. Sqsejjp* }f`q mcltcc ki hchdctqf`r yet`cq itkhwctk }k knc. _16X rtcqcn}q e nkycj errtkeaf sq`nlerrtkv`he}c tceqkn`nl }k mc}cth`nc qs`}edjcaenm`me}c nkmcq `n e m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch ikt aerea`}kt  rjeachcn}. Ykj}elcq enm rk|ct jkqq tcmsa}`kn `nm`acqki m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch nkmcq etc hkmcjjcm dp iswwphchdctqf`r isna}`knq. _10X mcycjkrcm e iswwp( deqcm errtkeaf ikt }fc rjeachcn} ki }fc qfsn}aerea`}kt denoq `n e m`q}t`ds}`kn qpq}ch |`}faknq`mct`nl fethkn`a m`q}kt}`knq. @n _=2X ykj}elc enm

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