Urban-planning means the unified development of cities and their neighbourhoods. For most of its history, urban-planning delat primarily with theregulation of land use and the physical arrangement of city structures, as guided byarchitectural, engineering, and land-development criteria. In the mid-20
century itbroadened to include the comprehensive guidance to the physical, economic andsocial environment of a community. Elements characteristics of modern urban-planning include:- general plans that summarize the objectives of (and restrains on) landdevelopment;- zoning and subdivision controls that specify permissible land uses, densities,and requirements for streets, utility services and other improvements;- plans for traffic flow and public transport;- strategies for economic revitalization of depressed urban and rural areas;- strategies for supportive action to help disadvantaged social groups;- guidelines for environmental protection and preservation of resources.The generic term of
has today a variety of forms: traditional town,metropolis, urban area, and urban agglomeration. It is better to use a wider meaningof the notion, which is
. This term covers all the urban forms,whatever their size.During the last decades the town-planning term suffered important changescompared with the initial meaning. Even though this practice of organising the spaceis very old, the town-planning is a recent discipline born at the end of the XIX
century. Today town-planning includes a wide range in which are involved manyurban disciplines: sociology, urban economy, urban engineering, urban financialadministration, and urban low.For the sociologist, the city is the physical expression of the inner socialrelations; for the engineer, the city is a system of under structures of all kinds; for theecologist, it represents the condensation of human productions that disturbs thenatural order; for the economist, it is the ensemble of profitableness factors oftenunequally distributed.
term reflects better the urban phenomenon on the wholeand offers a simple and effective model starting from the systems and structuressystems.Town-planning is a spatial expression of politics such as: economics, social,cultural, ecological.It concerns all the aspects connected to:-physical and spatial planning;-arrangements ;-financial administrationof the terrains at all levels (rural, urban, metropolitan, regional, national,international).
It requests an interdisciplinary approach for the integration of all aspects:physical, social, cultural, economical, political.
It requests a work in a team.The town-planning methods include:-the synthesis and analysis;-the composition and creation;-the financial administration of the territory.