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Urban Planning

Urban Planning



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Published by zlili

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Published by: zlili on Nov 29, 2008
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Urban-planning means the unified development of cities and theineighbourhoods. For most of its history, urban-planning delat primarily with theregulation of land use and the physical arrangement of city structures, as guided byarchitectural, engineering, and land-development criteria. In the mid-20
century itbroadened to include the comprehensive guidance to the physical, economic andsocial environment of a community. Elements characteristics of modern urban-planning include:- general plans that summarize the objectives of (and restrains on) landdevelopment;- zoning and subdivision controls that specify permissible land uses, densities,and requirements for streets, utility services and other improvements;- plans for traffic flow and public transport;- strategies for economic revitalization of depressed urban and rural areas;- strategies for supportive action to help disadvantaged social groups;- guidelines for environmental protection and preservation of resources.The generic term of 
has today a variety of forms: traditional town,metropolis, urban area, and urban agglomeration. It is better to use a wider meaningof the notion, which is
urban phenomenon
. This term covers all the urban forms,whatever their size.During the last decades the town-planning term suffered important changescompared with the initial meaning. Even though this practice of organising the spaceis very old, the town-planning is a recent discipline born at the end of the XIX
century. Today town-planning includes a wide range in which are involved manyurban disciplines: sociology, urban economy, urban engineering, urban financialadministration, and urban low.For the sociologist, the city is the physical expression of the inner socialrelations; for the engineer, the city is a system of under structures of all kinds; for theecologist, it represents the condensation of human productions that disturbs thenatural order; for the economist, it is the ensemble of profitableness factors oftenunequally distributed.
urban structure
term reflects better the urban phenomenon on the wholeand offers a simple and effective model starting from the systems and structuressystems.Town-planning is a spatial expression of politics such as: economics, social,cultural, ecological.It concerns all the aspects connected to:-physical and spatial planning;-arrangements ;-financial administrationof the terrains at all levels (rural, urban, metropolitan, regional, national,international).
It requests an interdisciplinary approach for the integration of all aspects:physical, social, cultural, economical, political.
It requests a work in a team.The town-planning methods include:-the synthesis and analysis;-the composition and creation;-the financial administration of the territory.
Generally speaking, this science has in view some aspects like: history,organisation, equipping, long term development, conservation and administration of atown. The aim of planning is to efficiently transform the reality and change it inaccordance with the human aspirations. Planning means to settle the objectives andthe achievement ways of them. The followed steps are:-the settlement of problems to solve;-the definition of the goals;-the evaluation of ways;-the assessment of the efficiency;-the fixing of the realistic goals, taking into account the problemsemergency;-the searching of the priority order;-the differentiation of the objectives in accordance with the priority list;-the selection of the proper intervention ways;-the insurance of the objectives achievement in the foreseen period of time.The town-planning is the science that studies the arrangements of towns andtheir surroundings using different ways for a better site of streets, buildings and publicservices in a manner that can give to the inhabitants healthy, convenient andagreeable conditions.
The shape of a square, the site of a lighting post in a street, of a tree, thecombing manners of the drinking and used water, the colour, shape and sitting of screen signs, street publicity, advertising the solving way of collective dwellings,organisation of the building terrains, places for statues, all of them are town-planningproblems.
The town-planning study analysis: how it originates the evolution in time, theadoption of human requirements at the zone topography, hygiene aspects,circulation, improving of life conditions of the community, arrangement andembellishment of town through:- protecting the inhabitants from difficulties due to climatic conditions andcohabitation (living together);- arranging the activities from urban agglomeration in order to obtain maximumoutputs and minimum expenses;- creation of a harmonious and pleasant life frame considering aesthetics asprogress factor.
The modern profession of town planning arose in response to the urbanproblems caused by rapid industrialisation from the late 19
century. Social reformersrecognised the need for corrective intervention to deal with the growth forcesunleashed by modernisation.The missions of the town-planner are:1)the needs identification (present and future) of the collectivities andemphasising: - the opportunities;- risks;- constraints;- implications of actions.2)the proposal of necessary actions for starting, organisation, protecting andchanges based on the study results in the form of: - politics- arrangement plan3)insurancesneedsleadingof plans / politics according to the evolution oresourceschangingobjectives
4)evaluation and administration of effectsimplicationsof changes according to their appearances5)it groups more activities:- territory arrangement (at national and international level)- urban and rural regional arrangement- physical and spatial planification6)it stimulates capitalizes and guides the continuous evolution, having inview the general interests7)it contributes to the harmoniously development of the urban communities8)it stimulates the physical and social changes9)indicates the better use of resources10)prevents and attenuates the interests conflicts objectives:- well-balanced social-economical development- improving the life quality- responsible administration of resources and environment protection- rational use of territory.
basic town planning document 
is a comprehensive plan that is adoptedand maintained with regular revisions. The plan receives its day-to day expression ina series of legal documents – town planning controls, subdivisions regulations andbuilding and housing codes – that establish standards of land use and quality of construction. The comprehensive plan serves many purposes: it brings together theanalyses of the social, economic and physical characteristics (such as the distributionof population, industry, businesses, open spaces and publicly built facilities) that ledto the plan; it examines special problems and opportunities within the city andestablishes community – development objectives; it coordinates land developmentwith transport, water supply, schools and other facilities; it proposes regulations,policies and programmes to implement the plan. The comprehensive plan is to guideto making daily development decisions in terms of their long-range consequences.
Development controls
are needed. Land is allocated and private activitiesare coordinated with public facilities by means of zoning ordinances and subdivisionregulations. A planning regulation or zoning ordinance governs how the land may beused and the size, type and number of structures that may be built on the land. Allland within a city is divided into districts, or zones. In these districts certain land usesare allowed by right and general restrictions on buildings height, bulk and use arespecified. The regulations carry out the land allocations recommended in thecomprehensive plan. Specific locations are given for different types of residences,industries and businesses. Specific numbers are given for allowable heights of buildings, coverage of a lot, and density. Allowable land uses are specified for eacharea, including special conditions such as required off street parking. Mostregulations are termed “matter-of-right”; if the specified requirements are met apermit will be given.The conversion of raw land (construction on previously undeveloped land) iscontrolled by subdivision regulations and by site-plan review. These ordinancesestablish standards of land development by regulating such features as roadwaywidth, drainage requirements, traffic circulation and lot sizes.

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