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British and American Literature, By Leila Borges

British and American Literature, By Leila Borges

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06/26/2012

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British
 
Literature
 
&
 
American
 
Literature
 
BY
 
LEILA
 
BORGES
 
 
 
SUMMARY
 
THE
 
OLD
 
ENGLISH
 
MAP..............................................................................................................................6
 
USEFUL
 
INFORMATION
 
TO
 
STUDY
 
LITERATURE........................................................................................8
 
Taking
 
Notes ..........................................................................................................................................8
 
Essay
 
Planning......................................................................................................................................10
 
Case
 
against
 
censorship.......................................................................................................................11
 
Case
 
for
 
censorship..............................................................................................................................11
 
How
 
to
 
Summarize...............................................................................................................................11
 
Some
 
extra
 
tips....................................................................................................................................13
 
Qualities
 
of 
 
a
 
character........................................................................................................................14
 
Author’s
 
tone.......................................................................................................................................15
 
ANALYSING
 
FICTION
 
/
 
LITERARY
 
TERMS..................................................................................................17
 
WHAT
 
IS
 
LITERATURE?.............................................................................................................................18
 
Literary
 
dictionary................................................................................................................................18
 
Forms
 
of 
 
literature...............................................................................................................................18
 
Poetry...............................................................................................................................................18
 
Drama...............................................................................................................................................19
 
Essays...............................................................................................................................................19
 
Prose
 
fiction.....................................................................................................................................20
 
Other
 
prose
 
literature......................................................................................................................20
 
Genres
 
of 
 
literature .............................................................................................................................21
 
Literary
 
genre...................................................................................................................................21
 
Subgenres ........................................................................................................................................21
 
Important
 
terms
 
for
 
poetry.................................................................................................................22
 
A
 
BRIEF
 
HISTORY
 
OF
 
THE
 
ENGLISH
 
LANGUAGE.......................................................................................29
 
History
 
and
 
Structure
 
of 
 
the
 
English
 
Language ...................................................................................31
 
General
 
Considerations ...................................................................................................................31
 
Origins
 
and
 
Basic
 
Characteristics.....................................................................................................33
 
Characteristics
 
of 
 
Modern
 
English...................................................................................................34
 
Phonology....................................................................................................................................34
 
Historical
 
Background..................................................................................................................35
 
Vocabulary...................................................................................................................................35
 
Old
 
English .......................................................................................................................................37
 
Middle
 
English..................................................................................................................................38
 
The
 
history
 
of 
 
England
 
from
 
the
 
Norman
 
invasion
 
encapsulates
 
all
 
the
 
major
 
trends
 
of 
 
the
 
times..40
 
The
 
Norman
 
Kings............................................................................................................................40
 
Henry
 
II.............................................................................................................................................41
 
Magna
 
Carta.....................................................................................................................................41
 
Edward
 
I...........................................................................................................................................42
 
The
 
1300’s........................................................................................................................................43
 
The
 
Lancasters .................................................................................................................................45
 
The
 
Wars
 
of 
 
the
 
Roses.....................................................................................................................46
 
LITERARY
 
PERIODS
 
OF
 
BRITISH
 
AND
 
AMERICAN
 
LITERATURE
SUMMARY............................................47
 
Periods
 
of 
 
British
 
Literature.................................................................................................................47
 
Literary
 
Periods
 
of 
 
American
 
Literature ..............................................................................................50
 
INTRODUCTION
 
TO
 
BRITISH
 
LITERATURE................................................................................................52
 
Anglo
 
Saxon
literature.........................................................................................................................52
 
Poetry...............................................................................................................................................52
 
Prose ................................................................................................................................................53
 
Beowulf............................................................................................................................................54
 
 
 
II 
Old
 
English
 
Poetry........................................................................................................................55
 
Plot
 
Overview...............................................................................................................................55
 
Characters....................................................................................................................................56
 
Who
 
wrote
 
Beowulf?...................................................................................................................58
 
The
 
Sutton
 
Hoo
 
Ship
 
Burial..........................................................................................................59
 
Politics
 
and
 
Warfare.....................................................................................................................59
 
Christian
 
Colouring
 
in
 
Beowulf....................................................................................................61
 
Middle
 
English
 
Literature.....................................................................................................................62
 
Geoffrey
 
Chaucer.............................................................................................................................65
 
John
 
Gower..................................................................................................................................68
 
The
 
vision
 
concerning
 
piers
 
the
 
plowman...................................................................................68
 
The
 
Wiclifite
 
Bible........................................................................................................................69
 
Geoffrey
 
Chaucer's
 
Canterbury
 
Tales..............................................................................................74
 
Chaucer's
 
Canterbury
 
Tales.............................................................................................................75
 
Chaucer's
 
Linguistic..........................................................................................................................76
 
Literary.........................................................................................................................................76
 
Chaucer's
 
English .............................................................................................................................76
 
The
 
general
 
prologue.......................................................................................................................77
 
The
 
Wife
 
of 
 
Bath's
 
Tale........................................................................................................................93
 
The
 
Prologe
 
of 
 
the
 
Wyves
 
Tale
 
of 
 
Bathe
 
(with
 
the
 
translation)......................................................93
 
Comments......................................................................................................................................113
 
The
 
wife
 
of 
 
Bath’s
 
Prologue.......................................................................................................114
 
The
 
Wife
 
of 
 
Bath’s
 
tale...............................................................................................................114
 
Theme........................................................................................................................................115
 
The
 
English
 
Literature
 
as
 
a
 
part
 
of 
 
General
 
Medieval
 
European
 
Literature..............................116
 
Literature
 
in
 
the
 
three
 
languages..............................................................................................116
 
Religious
 
Literature....................................................................................................................117
 
Secular
 
Literature.......................................................................................................................117
 
The
 
Romances................................................................................................................................118
 
Sir
 
Gawain
 
and
 
The
 
Green
 
Knight..............................................................................................120
 
The
 
End
 
of 
 
The
 
Middle
 
Ages.
 
About
 
1350
 
to
 
about
 
1500 .................................................................121
 
The
 
first
 
fifty
 
years.
 
Political
 
and
 
social
 
conditions. ......................................................................121
 
'Mandeville's
 
Voyage'........................................................................................................................122
 
The
 
Fifteenth
 
Century........................................................................................................................122
 
The
 
'popular'
 
ballads......................................................................................................................122
 
Sir
 
Thomas
 
Malory
 
and
 
his
 
'Morte
 
Darthur.'.................................................................................123
 
William
 
Caxton
 
and
 
the
 
introduction
 
of 
 
printing
 
to
 
England,
 
1476..............................................124
 
The
 
Medieval
 
Drama......................................................................................................................125
 
The
 
Sixteenth
 
Century.
 
The
 
Renaissance
 
and
 
the
 
Reign
 
of 
 
Elizabeth...............................................128
 
The
 
Renaissance.............................................................................................................................128
 
The
 
Reformation............................................................................................................................130
 
Sir
 
Thomas
 
More
 
and
 
his
 
'Utopia'..................................................................................................131
 
The
 
English
 
Bible
 
and
 
Books
 
of 
 
Devotion. .....................................................................................131
 
Wyatt
 
and
 
Surrey
 
and
 
the
 
new
 
poetry..........................................................................................132
 
The
 
Elizabethan
 
Period......................................................................................................................133
 
Prose
 
fiction...................................................................................................................................134
 
Edmund
 
Spenser,
 
1552
1599.........................................................................................................135
 
Elizabethan
 
lyric
 
poetry .................................................................................................................138
 
The
 
sonnets....................................................................................................................................139
 
John
 
Donne
 
and
 
the
 
beginning
 
of 
 
the
 
'metaphysical'
 
poetry........................................................139
 

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