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Vitamin b12 Production - Parul

Vitamin b12 Production - Parul

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Published by: anon-904559 on Nov 30, 2008
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MICROBIOLOGY TERMPAPER BTC-013VITAMIN B12 PRODUCTION
SUBMITTED TO:Ms. SUJATA DASS
SUBMITTED BY:PARUL MAHAJANB-TECH M-TECHBIOTECHNOLOGYSECTION: AROLL No: 4REGISTRATION No.: 3040070085
 
VITAMIN B12 PRODUCTION
AIM & OBJECTIVE:
Vitamin B12 Production
Vitamin B-12 is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the body,especially affecting the DNA synthesis, normal functioning of brain and nervous system,and formation of blood and regulation but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. However, many (though not all) of the effects of functions of B-12 can bereplaced by sufficient quantities of 
, since B-12 is used to regenerate folatein the body. Most "B-12 deficient symptoms" are actually folate deficient symptoms, sincethey include all the effects of 
and megaloblastosis, which are due to  poor synthesis of DNA when the body does not have a proper supply of 
for the production of  
.
 
A transdermal vitamin B12 delivery patch is applied to the skinof a user for the delivery of vitamin B12 to the bloodstream of the user. The patchincludes a fabric backing and a skin-adhesive polymer matrix that is attached to one sideof the fabric backing. The matrix contains a vitamin B12 compound. The vitamin B12compound diffuses from the matrix through the stratum corneum layer of the user's skin,through the dermis layer of the skin, and into the user's bloodstream.
On the applicationof serum vitamin B12 radio-assay is used to the diagnosis of cobalt deficiency insheep.
Vitamin B-12 cannot be made by plants or animals as only bacteriahave the enzymesrequired for its synthesis. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can potentially cause severe andirreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system. At levels only slightlylower than normal, a range of symptoms such asfatigue,depression,and poor memory  may be experienced. So vitamin b12 is produced by the process of fermentation in bacteria as well as industrially. it is produced by methanol utilizing bacteria, use of cheese whey , production by citrobacter ferenduii by tempeh fermentation, lactobacillusreuteri, efficient production by propionic acid bacteria under periodic variation of dissolved oxygen concentration, production in fermented milk products continuousmethane fermentation and production of vitamin b12 in fixed bed reactors packed withloopah. All these processes of fermentations in bacteria are used for the production of vitamin b12.
INTRODUCTION
Vitamin B-12
is one of eightB vitaminswhich are important for the normal functioningof the brainandnervous system, and for the formation of  blood. It is normally involved in themetabolismof everycellof the body, especially affectingDNAsynthesis and regulation, but alsofatty acidsynthesis and energy production.
Vitamin B-12
is the name for a class of chemically-related compounds, all of whichhave vitamin activity. It is structurally the most complicated vitamin.Biosynthesisof 
 
the basic structure of the vitamin can only be accomplished by bacteria, butconversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body. A common synthetic form of the vitamin,cyanocobalamin,does not occur innature, but is used in many pharmaceuticals, supplements and as food additive, due toits stability and lower cost. In the body it is converted to the physiological forms,methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, leaving behind the cyanide, albeit inminimal concentration. More recently,hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalaminand adenosylcobalamincan also be found in more expensive pharmacological productsand food supplements. The utility of these is presently debated.
Vitamin B-12
is a collection of cobaltand corrin ringmolecules which are defined by their particular vitamin function in the bodyThe term B-12 may be properly used to refer tocyanocobalamin, the principal B-12 formused for foods and in nutritional supplements. This ordinarily creates no problem, except perhaps in rare cases of eye nerve damage.
 
Below: A microscopic picture of vitamin B12
Synthesis:
Vitamin B-12 cannot be made by plants or animals as only
have the enzymes required for its synthesis. The
 of B-12 was reported by

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