3constitutionally prescribed mathematical formula because certain present-day counties did notexist in 1894. For example, in 1894 the territory now organized as Nassau County was part of Queens. Thus, in order to compare present-day apples to 1894 apples with respect toQueens/Nassau as Section 4 requires, one must combine present-day Queens and Nassau andtreat them as a unit, and one must compare that combined present-day unit to Queens as itexisted in 1894.5.
There are two ways in which the total current number of “full ratios” for Nassauand Queens collectively might be calculated, the key difference being when in the process onerounds down the fractional remainders: (a) one could first combine the current populations of Queens and Nassau, then divide the combined population by the “ratio” number, and then roundthe combined number of “ratios” down to the nearest-lower whole number (the “Combine BeforeRounding Down Method” or “Method A”); or (b) one could first identify the individual number of “full ratios” for each county by dividing the individual populations of each by the “ratio”number, round the number of “ratios” in each individual county down to the nearest-lower wholenumber, and then add together the two rounded-down counts of “full ratios” (the “Round DownBefore Combining Method” or “Method B”).6.
Sometimes these two methods lead to the same result, but sometimes they do not.For example, the 2010 Census revealed that Queens has a population of 2,230,722 and that Nassau has a population of 1,339,532. The “ratio” this year is 387,562 (the total New York population of 19,378,102 divided by 50). If one uses Method A, then the populations of Queensand Nassau are first combined, that total number (3,570,254) is then divided by the “ratio” of 387,562, and the resulting quotient of 9.21 is then rounded down to 9 “full ratios.” But if oneuses Method B, the Round Down Before Combining Method, then each county’s population is