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Physics Formulas

# Physics Formulas

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Basic and intermediate physics formulas.
Basic and intermediate physics formulas.

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03/07/2013

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Physics Formulasand Symbols
Physics I
QuantitySymbolFormula
% Error

% Error = ( |A-M| ) x 100 /A% Uncertainty

% Uncertainty = (Uncertainty x100) / MeasurementDistance (Linear displacement)
x
x = x
- x
o
Elapsed Time
t
t = t
2
- t
1
Instantaneous SpeedVV =
d /
t(with t approaching zero seconds)Average SpeedV
avg
V
avg
= (total distance traveled)/(totalelapsed time)
Acceleration
a
a =
V/
t = (V
2
- V
1
) / (t
2
- t
1
)Final SpeedV
2
V
2
= V
1
+ a
tOriginal SpeedV
1
V
1
= V
2
- a
tElapsed Time
t
t = (V
2
- V
1
) / a
KinematicEquations:====>
(Uniform Acceleration)
Final Velocity
V
2
V
2
= V
1
+ a
t
Displacement
x
x = V
1
t + 0.5(a
t
2
)
Final Velocity
V
2
V
22=
V
12
+ 2a
x
Displacement
x
x = 0.5(V
2
+ V
1
)
t
Elapsed Time
t
t = (V
2
-V
1
) / a

Free Fall fromRest
V1 = 0.0 m/sg =
-
9.8 m/s
2
Final Velocity
V
2
V
2
= g
t

Displacement

x
x = 0.5(g
t
2
)
Final Velocity
V
2
V
22=
2g
x
Displacement
x
x = 0.5(V
2
)
t
Elapsed Time
t
t = (V
2
) / g
Elapsed Time
t
t = Sq. root of (2
x/g)

Dynamics Equations
Force (Newton's2nd Law)F = ForceF = maFrictionF
F
=
µ
F
n
Newton's ThirdLaw
.
F
AB
= -F
BA
WeightF
g
= F
w
F
g
= F
w
= mgNormal ForceFnF
n
= F
w
Cos
θ
Coefficient of Friction
µµ
= F
/ F
n

AtwoodMachine

Net ForceF
net
F
net
= (M
1
- M
2
)g =
MgAccelerationaa = (F
net
) / (M
1
+ M
2
)Net ForceF
net
F
net
= (M
1
+ M
2
)aMass 1M
1.
Mass 2M
2.
Total MassM
tot
M
tot
= M
1
+ M
2
Mass Difference
M
M = M
1
- M
2
Force andon anAccelerationincline

Angle of Incline
θθ=
Sin
-1
a = gsin
θ
AcceleratingForce
FaFa = F
w
(Sin
θ)
Normal ForceF
N
F
N
=
F
w
(Cos
θ
)VerticalAccelerationa
y
a
y
= gsin
θ
sin
θ
HorizontalAccelerationa
x
a
x
= gsin
θ
cos
θ

ProjectileMotion
(No Air Resistance!)x = horizontal,y = vertical(Acceleration is in the verticaldirection only!)a
x
= 0.0 m/s
2
, a
y
= 9.8m/s
2
Down vectors arenegative in Value!Subscript "o" means time is 0.0seconds

Up vectors are positivein value!Formulas require a
y
to be positive9.8 m/s
2
. (The negative value hasalready been entered into theformulas for acceleration!)Horizontal Motion
x
2
=
x
1
+
V
x1
t
V
x2
=
V
x1
a
x
= 0.0 m/s
2
Vertical Motion

y
2
=
y
1
+
V
y1
t
-
0.5gt
2
V
y2
=
V
y1
-
gt
V
2
y2
=
V
2
y1
-
2g
y

Projectile Terms andUnits:

x
2
Final Horizontal Position(meters)
x = x
2
-
x
1
=
V
x1
tx
1
Initial Horizontal Position(meters)
x
1
=
x
2
-
V
x1
tV
x
1
Initial Horizontal Velocity(m/s)
V
x1
= (x
2
-

x
1
) /
t =
V
x2
V
x2
Final Horizontal Velocity(m/s)
V
x2
= V
x1
=
(x
2
-

x
1
) /
t