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# t-test

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Published by: Manoj Verma on Mar 17, 2012

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11/18/2013

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Tests involving Small Sample n < 30
Some times it is not practical or even possible to obtain large samples, cost, available timeand other factors may require us to work with small samples for our purposes we will say asample of size less than 30 is a small sampleAssumption for t-test1.The parent population from which sample is drawn is normal2.The sample is random (small n<30)3.Population standard deviation is unkown.
t-test for Single mean
Suppose we want to test if a random sample
n
x x x
,...,
21
of size n is drawn from a normal population with specified mean
µ
The null hypothesis is writtenHo: μ =
0
µ
H1: μ <
0
µ
(one tail test, left tail)The t- statistic is given by
n x
x
/
µ
=
(t has student t distribution with n-1df)d.f.: (no of independent observations in the sample) -(no of population parameter which must be estimated from sample observations)n k here k=1Example: A machine is producing washers having a thickness of ‘0.5 mm’ To determinewhether the machine is in proper working order, a sample of 10 washers is chosen for which the mean thickness is 0.53 m.m. and the standard deviation is .03 mm. Test thehypothesis that the machine is in proper working order using a level of significance (a) .05(b) 0.01Ho: μ = 0.50H1: μ
0.5 (Two tail test)The t- statistic is given by
n x
x
/
µ
=
=16.310/03. 5.53.0
=

Example 2:- A test of breaking strength of 6 ropes manufactured by a company showed amean breaking strength of 7750 N and a standard deviation of 145 N where asmanufacturer claimed a mean breaking strength of 8000 N. can we support themanufacturer’s claim at a level of significance 5%Ho: μ = 8000NH1: μ < 8000N (left tail test)The t- statistic is given by
n x
x
/
µ
=
=86.36/1458000.7750
=

Two Sample Tests of Means (n1+n2 < 30)
Two sample tests are frequently used to compare two methods of instruction, two brands,two cities and other similar things. Let the two populations are),(
21 1
σ  µ
f
and),(
222
σ  µ
f
, here
1
µ
and
2
µ
are the means of the population,
21
σ
and
22
σ
(both unknown) are thevariance of the population.The null hypothesis can be that two population have equal means
210
:
µ  µ
=
H
The alternatives can be one of the following
211
:
µ  µ
H
or
21
µ  µ
<
or
21
µ  µ
>
The test statistic is given by)11(2)1()1(
2121 222211
nnnn nn  y x
+++=
The statistic t has a t-distribution with n1+n2-2 d.f., if it can be assumed that both populations are approximately normal.Example 1The I.Q of 16 students from one area of city showed a mean of 107 with a standarddeviation of 10, while the I.Q.’s of 14 students from another area of the city showed amean of 112 with a standard deviation of 8. Is there a significant difference between theI.Q of the groups? Use (a) .01 and (b) .05 level of significance
210
:
µ  µ
=
H
,there is no difference between the groups
211
:
µ  µ
H
, there is significant difference between the groupsUnder Ho, the test statistic is)11(2)1()1(
2121 222211
nnnn nn  y x
+++=
=45.1)141161(21416)64(13)100(15 107112
=+++

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