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Stunguns Build Your Own Stun Gun

Stunguns Build Your Own Stun Gun

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Published by jim100ab

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Published by: jim100ab on Mar 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/13/2014

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Build Your Own Stun GunIntroduction
Do you feel the need to protect yourself in the event of an attack? Live in a country wherestun-guns and most other weapons are banned? Then this page might be for you. Itdiscusses the construction of an electronic shocking device called a stun-gun. It’s non-lethal according to the companies who make them commercially, and it is fairly easy andcheap to build. This page is really for people who already have experience withelectronics, or those who wish to learn. Having said that, you don’t need to know how itworks (although it helps with trouble shooting), and the only skills you need are solderingand recognising components.In its current state, experimentation by the constructor is required if a decent weapon is tobe built! It is probably best to use it for intimidating the attacker, and only actually usedas a weapon as a last resort. Also please remember that this device is intended for self defence against the many people in this world who like to start fights unprovoked.
Circuit Description
The first “block” is a multivibrator (oscillator). The purpose of this is to turn the DC intoAC (pulsed DC in this case) by switching the power transistor on and off very quickly.The power transistor sends a current through the primary winding of the transformerevery time it’s switched on, creating an electric field in both primary and secondary coils.The field changes as it’s switched off, creating a high voltage in the secondary winding.This high voltage is fed into a voltage multiplier, which increases the final voltage (by theamount fed in, peak to peak AC) at every stage. This is used to give a bright spark at theelectrodes.
 
 
Construction of the first stage
 I built the first stage on stripboard, apart from the transformer. The power transistor Q3was mounted on a small square of aluminium to act as a heatsink, but the transistordoesn’t get hot with my setup. The component values are rough, as I used the one’s I hadlying around. The resistors should be about that value, and the capacitors can be between0.01uF and 0.1uF. The resistors/capacitors in the first “block” (apart from R5) determinethe frequency that the device operates. The optimal frequency is fairly low. At highfrequencies, the device simply won’t work as the power transfer from the oscillator to thetransformer is so small. I use a preset for R1, and vary the frequency for maximumefficiency. For Q1 and Q2, just about any NPN transistor should do, so long as they canwithstand the voltage/current, same with Q3. When originally testing this circuit, I used acar ignition coil as the first transformer. It has 3 terminals, just mess about connecting itup until it works! With a 9.6v battery pack made up of 8 AA ni-cads, I was getting a4mm spark from the secondary winding. Using a 9v PP3 battery, I got a smaller spark (the battery may have been flat).I also tried using a mains transformer. I used the low voltage winding as the primary, and
 
the mains winding as the secondary. I don’t know the spec of the transformer, but I wasgetting a 1mm spark.
Construction of the Voltage Multiplier
The capacitors and diodes should be able to withstand the peak to peak RMS voltageoutput at the secondary coil of the transformer. They should be well spaced out so thatsparks can’t jump from one stage to another, and possibly encased in some type of insulating epoxy (potting compound) or oil.
Power
I got many emails asking where to connect the battery and switch. I can see why it wasn’tclear, so here you go: Connect the negative terminal of the battery to the ground (0V) of the circuit, and connect the positive terminal of the battery to one terminal of a switch.Connect the other terminal of the switch to the +9-12V input of the circuit. Be sure theswitch is off whilst you’re doing this!
Stripboard Layout
I’ve finally got round to sketching the layout for the stripboard. The arrow indicates thedirection of the copper strips (vertical). Q3 is mounted on a heatsink, thus it isn’t on theboard, and I have used a preset for R1 so that I can vary the frequency. The tags on Q1and Q2 indicate the position at which they must be mounted. If you use differenttransistors, it is likely that you’ll have to mount them differently. Just check the listingsfor them in an electronics catalogue for correct pin outs. Also note that the ‘-‘ sign in thecircle means connect the lead to the negative battery terminal. I’ve numbered the trackson the board for easy reference when constructing. The bridge shaped lines on thediagram are simply wires to connect tracks together. Using this layout, there is no need to‘break’ any copper tracks.

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