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Biology notes for O level

Biology notes for O level

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Published by Ahmad Barrun Nidhom
This is for those who are taking o level. This is exclusively for those who will have the o level exam in 2009.There are 17 topics in total but this file only covers topics from topic 1 to 11. There may/may not be further updates in the future.
Sorry that I didn't include the contents page and the credits. This is Pure Biology (5090)
This is for those who are taking o level. This is exclusively for those who will have the o level exam in 2009.There are 17 topics in total but this file only covers topics from topic 1 to 11. There may/may not be further updates in the future.
Sorry that I didn't include the contents page and the credits. This is Pure Biology (5090)

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Published by: Ahmad Barrun Nidhom on Dec 02, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/10/2015

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1.1 Plant Cells and Animal Cells:
Fig.1.0 Basic structures of an animal cell and a plant cell.Cell wall:1.Porous.
Permeable.
Non-living structure made of cellulose.
Cell membrane/Plasma membrane2.Semi-permeable/Partially permeable(Only certain parts can pass through it and some aren't able).
Cytoplasm3.Contains cell organelles.
Food substances.
Mostly H
2
O.
Vacuole/Sap vacuole/Large central vacuole4.Mostly H
2
O.
Nucleus5.Controls all activities of a cell.
Chloroplasts6.Contains green pigment called Chlorophyll which is important for doing Photosynthesis.
Differences between plant cells and animal cells7.Only plant cells have cell wall.
Only plant cells have chloroplasts.
Plant cells have a large central vacuole while some animal cells have small vacuoles and some doesn'thave any.
Plant cells have a regular shape while animal cells have irregular shape.
Cells structure and Organisation1.
Biology Page 1
 
1.2 Specialized/Modified cells:
Root Hair Cell:1.To absorb water and minerals.
Increases surface area for absorption.
Has a larger vacuole to store more H
2
O.
Finger-like projection:
Fig.1.2 Root hair cell.Red blood cell:2.To carry/transport oxygen.
Packed with haemoglobin (red pigment).
No nucleus.
Biconcave shape.
Fig.1.3 Red blood cells.Xylem vessels:3.To transport H
2
O and minerals.
Supporting plant body.
Fig.1.4(a)Whole plant, (b) plant stem and (c)xylem vessel
 
 
Biology Page 2
 
2.1 Diffusion
Diffusion:1.The movement of particles form an area of higher concentration to anotherarea of lower concentration down a concentration gradient.
Fig. 2.1 Representation of diffusion.
2.2 Osmosis
Osmosis:2.The movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to anarea of lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.
Fig. 2.2 (a)The sugar solution in the bag is more concentrated than the wateroutside the bag. (b)The water in the bag is more dilute than the sugar solutionoutside the bag. (c)The sugar solution in the bag is of the same concentrationas that of the solution outside the bag.
Diffusion and Osmosis2.
Monday, October 20, 20088:15 PM
Biology Page 3

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