A standard method for presenting a PFD is given and illustrated using aprocess to produce benzene via the catalytic hydrodealkylation of toluene.The 3D topology of chemical processes is introduced, and some basic infor-mation on the spacing and elevation of equipment is presented. These con-cepts are further illustrated in the Virtual Plant Tour AVI file on the CD ac-companying the textbook.
Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams
The evolutionary process of design is investigated. This evolution begins withthe process concept diagram that shows the
structure of allprocesses. From this simple starting point, the engineer can estimate the grossprofit margins of competing processes and of processes that use differentchemical synthesis routes to produce the same product. In this chapter, it isshown that all processes have a similar input/output structure whereby rawmaterials enter a process and are reacted to form products and by-products.These products are separated from unreacted feed, which is usually recycled.The product streams are then purified to yield products that are acceptable tothe market place. All equipment in a process can be categorized into one of thesix elements of the generic block flow process diagram. The process of processdesign continues by building preliminary flowsheets from these basic func-tional elements that are common to all processes.
Chapter 3: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram
In order to gain a better understanding of a PFD, it is often necessary to fol-low the flow of key chemical components through the diagram. This chap-ter presents two different methods to accomplish this. The tracing of chemi-cals through the process reinforces our understanding of the role that eachpiece of equipment plays. In most cases, the major chemical species can befollowed throughout the flow diagram using simple logic without referringto the flow summary table.
Chapter 4: Understanding Process Conditions
Once the connectivity or topology of the PFD has been understood, it is nec-essary to understand why a piece of equipment is operated at a given pressureand temperature. The idea of conditions of special concern is introduced.These conditions are either expensive to implement (due to special materialsof construction and/or the use of thick-walled vessels) or use expensive utili-ties. The reasons for using these conditions are introduced and explained.
Section 1Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
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