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Table Of Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 General Background
1.2 Objectives and Goals of the Study
1.3 Scope and Limitations of the Study
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Flow around a Single Cylinder
2.2.1 Flow Field and Transitions around Single Cylinder
2.2.2 Surface Roughness Effects
2.2.3 Effects of Flow Turbulence
2.3 Flow around Two Cylinders
2.3.1 Two Equal-diameter Cylinders
2.3.2 Two Unequal-diameter Cylinders
2.4 Experiments of Three or More Cylinders
2.5 Experiments of Multiple Cylinders Arranged in Tandem Conducted by Narasimhan
2.6 Design Code of ASCE7-02 for Pipe Rack Structures
CHAPTER 3. EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTS
3.1 Wind Tunnel
3.2 Pipe Models
3.3 Force Measurements
3.4 Flow Measurements
3.5 Data Acquisition System and Software
3.6 Coordinate System and Sign Conventions
CHAPTER 4. FLOW CONDITIONING AND CHARACTERIZATION
4.1 Flow Conditioning
4.1.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Smooth Flow Conditioning
4.1.3 Conditioning of Turbulent Flow
4.3 Summary of Flow Conditions
CHAPTER 5. SURFACE ROUGHNESS EVALUATION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Surface Roughness Characterization Parameters
5.3 Surface Materials
5.4 Surface Roughness Measurements
5.5 Equivalent Uniform Sand Grain Roughness
CHAPTER 6. CALIBRATION AND DATA VALIDATION
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Calibration
6.2.1 Hot-wire Probe Calibration
6.2.2 Calibration of Load Cells and Pressure Transducer
6.3 Data Validation
6.3.1 Sampling Rate and Duration
6.3.2 Force Measurement Validation
6.3.3 Velocity Correction
6.3.4 Model End Effects Correction
6.3.5 Reproducibility of Single Cylinder Drag Coefficients
6.3.6 Validation of Single Cylinder Drag Coefficients
6.3.7 Validation of Drag Coefficients for Two Cylinders Arranged in Tandem
6.3.8 Validation of Drag Coefficients for Three Cylinders Arranged in Tandem
CHAPTER 7. TWO-CYLINDER ARRANGEMENTS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Description of Experiments
7.3 Test Results, Analysis, and Discussion
7.4 Drag Coefficients
7.4.1 Drag Coefficients on Equal-Diameter Combinations Arranged In-tandem
7.4.2 Drag Coefficients on Two Unequal-diameter Cylinders
7.4.4 Combined Drag Coefficients on Two-cylinder Arrangements
CHAPTER 8. THREE CYLINDERS ARRANGED IN TANDEM
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Experiment Description
8.3 Experimental Results Discussion and Analysis
8.3.1 Drag Coefficient for Equal-diameter Combinations
8.3.2 Drag Coefficients for Unequal-diameter Combinations
8.3.3 Lift Coefficients for Unequal-diameter Combinations
8.3.4 Combined Drag Coefficients for Three-cylinder Combinations
CHAPTER 9. FOUR CYLINDERS ARRANGED IN TANDEM
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Experiment Description
9.3 Calibration of Digital Air Pressure Meter
9.4 Discussion of the Experimental Results
9.4.1 Drag Coefficients for Equal-diameter Cylinders
9.4.2 Drag coefficients for Unequal-diameter Combinations
9.4.3 Lift Coefficients for Unequal-diameter Combinations
9.4.4 Combined Drag Coefficient of Four-cylinder Arrangement
CHAPTER 10. FORCE RATIOS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
10.1 Definition of Force Ratio
10.2 Force Ratios for Two-, Three- and Four-cylinder Arrangements
Number
10.4 Recommendations for Design Practice
CHAPTER 11. EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Reproducibility Test and Uncertainty Level
CHAPTER 12. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
12.1 Summary
12.2 Conclusions
12.2.1 Drag Coefficients
12.2.2 Lift Coefficients
12.2.3 Combined Drag Coefficients
12.2.4 Force Ratios
12.3 Recommendations for Further Research
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A: FURTHER WORKS CONSULTED
APPENDIX B: INDEX OF CYLINDER MODELS
APPENDIX C: SINGLE CYLINDER TEST RESULTS
APPENDIX D: MULTIPLE-CYLINDER TEST RESULTS
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Multiple Cylinders

Multiple Cylinders

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Published by Amine Kallel

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Published by: Amine Kallel on Mar 20, 2012
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11/18/2012

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