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Paper Entrepreneur - Qualitative

Paper Entrepreneur - Qualitative

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Published by: sabrinasihombing on Mar 21, 2012
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Understanding Motivations of Female Students to Become Entrepreneurs:A Qualitative Approach
Sabrina O. Sihombingsabrinasihombing@gmail.comUniversitas Pelitas HarapanAbstractBecoming an entrepreneur is one aim of many students after completing thestudy. This is because entrepreneurships offer many benefits such asowning business and a possibility of having significant financial rewardsthan working for others. Students can also be considered as the primaryresource of future entrepreneurs. Several studies have examined students’motivation to become an entrepreneur. However, little research hasconducted to examine female studentsmotivation to become entrepreneur.It is important to understand female studentsmotivation to becomeentrepreneur. This is because gender inequality still exists especially indeveloping countries. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to enhancethe understanding motivations of female students to become entrepreneurs.In depth interviews with five female students were conducted to exploretheir motivations to become an entrepreneur. The result shows that financialindependence (pull motivation) is main motivation for female students to become entrepreneur. However, another important motivation is flexibility(push motivation). This results shows entrepreneur motivations areintertwined. Limitations as well as future research are discussed.Key words: entrepreneur, students, qualitative approach“If I give a man a fish, then I feed for him a day.If I teach a man to fish, then I feed him for life.If I teach a man to fish responsibly, then not onlydo I feed him, but the rest of his village as well,for generations to come.”(Kao, 1993)
Background to research problem
Becoming an entrepreneur is one aim of many students after completing the study. This is because entrepreneurships offer many benefits such as owning business and a possibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Students can also beconsidered as the primary resource of future entrepreneurs.International Seminar & ConferenceFakultas Ekonomi UNJ – 9 & 10 November 2010
Several studies have examined students’ motivation to become an entrepreneur (for examples: Segal et al., 2005; Linan and Chen, 2006; Engle et al., 2008; Izquierdo andBuelens, 2008; Shook and Bratianu, 2008; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; El Harbi et al., 2009).However, little research has conducted to examine female studentsmotivation to becomeentrepreneur. It is important to understand female studentsmotivation to becomeentrepreneur. This is because gender inequality still exists especially in developingcountries. Therefore, the objective of this research is to understand motivations of femalestudents to become entrepreneurs. Thus, the main research question for this research is“what motivates female students to become entrepreneurs?” In order to back-up theresearch question, there be six more detailed questions were applied as follows:1.What motivates female students to become entrepreneurs?2.How interested are you in becoming an entrepreneur?3.What type of support do female students receive from their family to becomeentrepreneurs?
How much have female students already prepared to become entrepreneurs?5.Are there any gender differences toward being an entrepreneur?6.How soon are you going to become an entrepreneur?This paper is organized as follows. First, justifications of the research are presented.Then, the literature review on about entrepreneur and entrepreneur motivations andintentions are provided. The next section is research method followed by results of thisresearch. Finally, this paper provides conclusions of this research.
Justifications to the research
This research can be justified on these two grounds as follows: (1) the need of research onintention of female students to become entrepreneurs and (2) potential contributions of theresearch for theory and practice.
The need of research on intention of female students to become entrepreneurs
. Manyresearches have been conducted to understand entrepreneurs. For example, some researchshows the characteristics of entrepreneurs (Nair and Pandey. 2006) and motivation to become an entrepreneur (Manolova et al., 2008; Buang and Yusof, 2006; Segal et al.,2005). According to Baron (1999, cited by Cohoon et al., 2010), entrepreneurs have astereotypically masculine image. However, there is significant increasing of womenentrepreneurs nowadays. Therefore, examining the gender differences toward beingentrepreneur is important because a comment which stated “An entrepreneur is anentrepreneur is entrepreneur” should been revised (Dunn and Liang, 2006). This is becausestudies have shown that there are gender differences in many aspects in understandingentrepreneurship (for example: Walker and Webster, 2006; Manolova et al., 2008;Kirkwood, 2009). There were several research focused in women entrepreneur (for example: Lee, 1997; Orhan and Scott, 2001; Lim et al., 2003; Sarri and Trihopoulou, 2004;Dunn and Liang, 2006; Erogul and McCohan, 2008; Raman et al., 2008). Furthermore,there were also research focused in student perception and intention to be entrepreneurs(for examples: Segal et al., 2005; Linan and Chen, 2006; Engle et al., 2008; Izquierdo andInternational Seminar & ConferenceFakultas Ekonomi UNJ – 9 & 10 November 2010
Buelens, 2008; Shook and Bratianu, 2008; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; El Harbi et al., 2009).An understanding on students’ perception or intention to be entrepreneurs is crucial. This is because students are future entrepreneurs. However, as far as researcher understanding,there is no or limited research to understand motivation of female students to becomeentrepreneurs.
 Potential contributions for theory and practice
. From a theoretical point of view, theresults of this study give contributions to the understanding of female students’ intention to become entrepreneurs. Since not many studies on female students and entrepeneurship, it ishoped that the result of this research give contribution to understanding about womenentrepreneurship. From a practical point of view, this research gives insight to universityabout female students’ intention to become entrepreneurs.
Literature reviewEntrepreneur definitions
Entrepreneur has its origin in the French word “entreprende” which means “to undertake”(Kao et al., 2002). In their book on entrepreneurism, Kao et al. (2002, p.32) also providesseveral key definitions of entrepreneur such as a self self-employed person with uncertainreturn (Cantillon, 1730), as a person in need of high achievement and autonomy(McClelland, 1961), as a person who is able to identify opportunities and develop smallenterprises (Penrose, 1959), and as a creative innovator (Schumpeter, 1910). Kao et al.(2002, p.42) also provide their definition of entrepreneur as a person who undertakes awealth-creating and value-adding process, through developing ideas, assembling resourcesand making things happen.
Entrepreneurial motivation
The success of entrepreneurs is dependent on personal motivation (Urban et al., 2008;Shane et al. 2003). There are several theories that can explain entrepreneurial motivation,for instance: push and pull theories. The push theory explains that individuals are becomingentrepreneurs because of negative external factors such as difficulty finding jobs, jobdissatisfaction, inflexible work hour, and insufficient salary. Push factors often havenegative connotation (Kirkwoord, 2009). On the other hand, the pull theory states thatindividuals are becoming entrepreneurs because of several attractiveness such as havinggreater financial rewards, self-fulfillment, independent, and other desirable outcomes(Gilad and Levine, 1983 cited by Segal et al., 2005).Several researches show motivation differences between men and women. For instance,Walker and Webster (2006) showed that there were significant differences between manand women motivations to run their business. Flexible hours, wanting to work from homeand the need to balance work and family are main motivation for women entrepreneurs.The result of that study indicated that women still doing the double shift of having to copewith family and work (Walker and Webster, 2006, p. 128). Another research conducted astudy conducted Manolova et al. (2008) pointed out that men are motivated by self-realization, financial success, and autonomy. On the other hand, women are motivated byall of out desired outcomes (self-realization, status, financial success, and autonomy).International Seminar & ConferenceFakultas Ekonomi UNJ – 9 & 10 November 2010

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