Buelens, 2008; Shook and Bratianu, 2008; Van Gelderen et al., 2008; El Harbi et al., 2009).An understanding on students’ perception or intention to be entrepreneurs is crucial. This is because students are future entrepreneurs. However, as far as researcher understanding,there is no or limited research to understand motivation of female students to becomeentrepreneurs.
Potential contributions for theory and practice
. From a theoretical point of view, theresults of this study give contributions to the understanding of female students’ intention to become entrepreneurs. Since not many studies on female students and entrepeneurship, it ishoped that the result of this research give contribution to understanding about womenentrepreneurship. From a practical point of view, this research gives insight to universityabout female students’ intention to become entrepreneurs.
Literature reviewEntrepreneur definitions
Entrepreneur has its origin in the French word “entreprende” which means “to undertake”(Kao et al., 2002). In their book on entrepreneurism, Kao et al. (2002, p.32) also providesseveral key definitions of entrepreneur such as a self self-employed person with uncertainreturn (Cantillon, 1730), as a person in need of high achievement and autonomy(McClelland, 1961), as a person who is able to identify opportunities and develop smallenterprises (Penrose, 1959), and as a creative innovator (Schumpeter, 1910). Kao et al.(2002, p.42) also provide their definition of entrepreneur as a person who undertakes awealth-creating and value-adding process, through developing ideas, assembling resourcesand making things happen.
The success of entrepreneurs is dependent on personal motivation (Urban et al., 2008;Shane et al. 2003). There are several theories that can explain entrepreneurial motivation,for instance: push and pull theories. The push theory explains that individuals are becomingentrepreneurs because of negative external factors such as difficulty finding jobs, jobdissatisfaction, inflexible work hour, and insufficient salary. Push factors often havenegative connotation (Kirkwoord, 2009). On the other hand, the pull theory states thatindividuals are becoming entrepreneurs because of several attractiveness such as havinggreater financial rewards, self-fulfillment, independent, and other desirable outcomes(Gilad and Levine, 1983 cited by Segal et al., 2005).Several researches show motivation differences between men and women. For instance,Walker and Webster (2006) showed that there were significant differences between manand women motivations to run their business. Flexible hours, wanting to work from homeand the need to balance work and family are main motivation for women entrepreneurs.The result of that study indicated that women still doing the double shift of having to copewith family and work (Walker and Webster, 2006, p. 128). Another research conducted astudy conducted Manolova et al. (2008) pointed out that men are motivated by self-realization, financial success, and autonomy. On the other hand, women are motivated byall of out desired outcomes (self-realization, status, financial success, and autonomy).International Seminar & ConferenceFakultas Ekonomi UNJ – 9 & 10 November 2010