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ALLOY STEEL WELDING

ALLOY STEEL WELDING

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05/13/2014

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Weldingthenew-gen4rationCr-Moalloysforhigh-temperatureservice
BYKEINTK.COLEMANANDW.
F.
NEWELL
JR.
C
reepstrength-enhancedferriticatrecentconferencesonadvancedmate-ASMESectionIconstruction.(SeeRefs.steel(CSEF)andadvancedrialssuggestthatalthoughthebasemet-15,16.)chromium-molybdenumsteelsarealsofferpotentiallysuperiorproperties,TheAmericanWeldingSociety's
DID
experiencingworldwideusage.Thedesirerestorationofheat-affectedzones(HAZ)CommitteeonPipingandTubingdecidedtoincreaseefficiencyhasintroducedaIcreatedbyweldingorremediationofcoldtoremoveP(T)91materialsfromitsex-needforadvancedmaterialswithsuperiorIworklbendingeffectsmaynothavebeenistingguidelinepublicationonweldingmaterialpropertiesathighertempera-fullyexaminedandneedfurtherinvesti-CrMopipingandtubing(DI0.S)andpre-tures.Advancedchromium-molybdenumgation.Like1'('1')91,dealingwiththepareanewdocument(DI0.21,pending)pipeandtubingsuchas9CrMoV[P(T)91],!HAZinotherCSEFalloysmayinfactforP(T)91andtheotheradvancedtungsten,and/orboron-enhancedmateri-offerthemostchallenges.Figure1illus-chromium-molybdenums.TheAWSdoc-als(i.e.,Grades92,122,E911,23,24,etc.)ratesthetypical"softzone"thatformsumentispendingresolutionoftechnicalarenowbeingspecified.ThelessonsinCSEFHAZs.(SeeRefs.1-10.)items,duetolessonslearned,nowbeinglearnedthusfarwithP(T)91weldmentsdeliberatedinvariousASMEcommittees.havetrulydemonstratedthatCSEFsteelsarequitedifferentandrequiresignificantlymoreattentionthantheP(T)22andlessermaterials.Ofthecandidateadvancedbasemate-rialsandconsumables,T23appearstohavethehighestpriorityamongchal-lengestoP91,followedbyP92andthentoalesserextentthehigherchromium-andnickel-basedalloys.EmphasisplacedhereinonGrade91andtheimportanceofmaintainingpreheat,interpasstemper-ature,anddangersinherentininterrupted1iCatillgcycTe.§.orImproperpostweldheattreatmentplusdetailedattentiontofillermetalprocurementtoavoidmetallurgi-calcomplicationsisequallytruefortheotheradvancedchromium-molybdenumalloys.
Comparison
of
Properties
heseCSEFalloyshavesimilarcom-positionswithinagivenalloyfam-ily.Specificproperties,particularlystrengthorenhancedcorrosionresistanceatelevatedtemperatures,areachievedbycontrolledalloyadditionssuchastung-sten,vanadium,orboron.Compositionsandspecificationsforcandidateadvancedchromium-molybdenumsteelsforhigh-temperatureserviceareshowninTables1and2.
ComparisonofP91SteelandotherCSEFs
I
UseofP91isnowworldwide.There
l
arevarioussourcesforbasematerials,weldingconsumables,andfabrication.
!
(seeRefs.1-13.)Theartissuchthatfewweldingproblemsareencountered.Fab-icationandfielderectionproblemshavebeennoted,butaretypicallyrelatedtoimproperorinadequateheattreatingandbendingoperations.Designandimple-mentationofdissimilarweldmentscon-tinuetobeasubjectofmuchdiscussion.ReviewofcreepperformanceforweldingjConsumablesremainsakeyfactorforse-Ilection.OtherCSEFscanbesummarizedasfollows:
I·
P92:SimilartoP91,butwithO.5Mo-
l.7W
E911:SimilartoP91,butwith1%WP122:LikeP92,butwith11%Cr
+
l%CuT23:SimilartoP22,butstrongerwith-2%WT24:SimilartoT22,butwithV
+
Ti
+
B
RepresentativecreepruptureresultsrrselectedCSEFsareshowninFig.2.
CodeAcceptance-BaseMaterial
Basematerialdevelopmentandcodeacceptancehaveprecededeffortandre-ASME/AWSspecificationsareap-searchintheareasofweldpropertiesandprovedforusingP91basematerialandweldingconsumablesfortheadvanced'[Neldmetal.Table3illustratesbasemetalchromiumalloys.InformationpresentedrOdecasesthathavebeenissuedfor
ComparingBaseMetal,Heat-AffectedZone,andWeldMetalStrength
ifferencesinhardnessbetweenthebasemetal,weldmetal,andHAZforaP91weldmentareshowninFig.
1.
ThistrendfortheHAZtobea"softzone"existswithalltheCSEFs.Giventhathardnesscanbeanin-dicatorforstrengthinlow-alloymateri-als,theHAZofferstheleastperformance,regardlessoftheweldmetalorbasemetalinvolved.EvenwhenmatchingCSEFweldmetalisused,ittendstobestrongerthanthebasemetalanddefinitelystrongerthantheHAZ.Increasedtimesattem-peraturecouldbeemployedtoreducetheweldmetalstrength,butthisapproachisusuallynotusedforeconomicreasons.(SeeRefs.14,15,17.)
WeldingConsumables
AvarietyofweldingconsumableswithAWSorothernationalspecificationsareavailableforP91materials.(SeeRefs.15,18-25.)ThisisnotthecasefortheotherCSEFalloys.Table4providesexamplesofweldingconsumablcs,andTable5listsconsumablesforwelding1'91.WhereanAWSclassificationisshown,specificcon-sumablesareavailablefrommorethanonesource.ThosewithoutanAWSclas-sificationarcavailableonacommercialbasisandcharacteristicallymirrorbase
~I
KENTK.COLEMANismanager,Boiler
Li1e
andAvailabilityImprovement,ElectricPowerResearchInstitute,Charlotte,
u.c.
W.
F.
NEWELLJR.,PE,IWE,iscOfirunderandvicepresident-Engineering,Euroweld,Ltd.,Mooresville,
N.
C.
I
WELDINGJOURNAL
 
:7<$4
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~
~2~
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:.;",.",~fa:i$iHt
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'qkh!,Mtnf
C·_}
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51~
5:W5,~iJ~iJ
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~fr
it~!l
Fig.
1-
RepresentativemicrohardnessacrossatypicalP91weldment(Ref10).Fig.
2-
u»
hl-reeprupturevaluesofT/P22,T/P23,T/P24,andT/P91asafunctl~noftemperature.(Kimura/Prager,Refs.
13-15).metalcompositions.Inmostcases,AWSAS.Ol,
FillerMetalProcurementGuide-lines,
providesthemeanstospecifyandobtainsatisfactorymaterialformaterialswithaclassificationandthosethatmustbeorderedwiththe
"-G"
classification.eldingconsumablesforType
pn'
92,122,23,or24alloysdonothaverecognizedspecificationsatthiswriting.Fillermetalsforthesealloysareformulatedtoprovidewelddepositssimilarincompositionandperformanceasthebasematerial.Inlieuofaspecifica-tion,manufacturersshouldbeconsultedforconsumablesthatareavailableforthesealloys.TypicalcompositionsareshowninTable6.Cratercrackingandotherundesirablegrainboundaryphenomenacanbemini-mizedbyorderingweldmetalwithlowresidualelementcontentanda-15coat-ingaswellasobservingaMn/Sratio;\.~o(\o9~greaterthan
50.
Theserecommendations
~q;.,
areofferedtoreducethepotentialfor
to(\~
problemsthatoccurasaresultoflowmeltingconstituentsorotherprecipita!testhatinfluencegrainboundaryintegrity.Shieldedmetalarcwelding(SMA~andt1uxcoredarcweldinFCAWel~troesshouldundergoactualchemi£i1.Landmechamcaltesting.Asatisfactl)rychemicalanalysisdoesnotguarantee~ceptablemechanicalproperties,eseci;~tougness.echamcatesting,includingtensileandimpacttests,isrecommendedonalottolot,persizeperdiameterbasis,Testingandreportingonlyactualchemicalanalysisonapersize,perheatsuppliedbasisforgastungstenarcwelld-ing(GrAW)andsubmergedarcweldfng(SAW)barewiresisnormallysatisfactory.
HeatingOperations
P
roperapplicationofheatingope~a-tionsiscriticaltosuccess.Applica-tionandrigorouscontrolofpreheat,interpass,andpostweldheattreatmentoperationsarerequiredtoensurethatde-siredtoughnessandcreepresistanceareobtained.Controlofpreheatandinter-e_asstemperaturesandevenpostbakin_goperatIOnsarenecessarytoavoidhydro-genretention/crackingproblemsinthisextremelhardenableallofamil.Flame,
l(
urnaceheating,electricalresistance,andelectricalinductionheatinghavebeenusedsuccessfully.emperaturemonitor-mgandcontrolofthermalgradientsisex-tremelyimportant.Forthesereasonsocalflameheatingisnotrecommendedandshould
not
bepermitted.Changesinsectionthickness,chimney,andpositioneffectsmustalsobeconsidered.
If
un-known,mock-upsshouldbeusedtoes-tablishheatedband,soaktimes,andac-tualthermalgradients.(SeeRefs.18,22-26.)
Preheat
Theliteraturesuggeststhat200°C
Z
-400°F)isadequateforpreheatingP91andP92weldments.Fabricatorstypically
Table1-CSEFBaseMaterialTypicalCompositionRanges
BaseMaterialSpecification1'911'92E911T23T241'122
C
0.OS-0.120.07·-0.130.10-0.130'()4-0.100.05-0.100.07-0.14Mn0.30-0.60'0.30-0.600.30-0.600.10-0.600.30-0.700.30-0.70Si0.20-0.50<0.500.10-·0.30<0.500.15--0.45<0.50S<0.010"<0.010<0.010<0.010<0.()10<O.OIO
l'
<0.020<0.020<0.020<0.030<0.020<0.020Cr8.00-9.50S.50-9.50S.50-9.501.9-2.62.2-2.610.00-12.50Ni<0.40<0.40(<0.40)<0.50Cll0.30-1.70Mo0.85-1.050.30-0.600.90-1.100.05-0.300.90-1.100.25-0.60
W
1.S0-2.000.90-1.101.45-1.751.50-2.50
V
0.18-0.250.15-0.250.15-0.250.20-0.300.20-0.300.15-0.30Nb0.06-0.100.04-0.090.06-0.100.02-0.080.04-0.10N0'()30-0.0700.030-0.0700.050-0.080<0.030<0.0120.040-0.10
B
10-60ppm5-60ppm15-70ppm<0.005Al<0.040<0.040<0.030<0.020<0.040Ti0.05-0.10
't,I
AUGUST2007
 
Table2-ExampleSpecificationDesignations(RJfs.1-7,11,12)AlloyCode/Jurisdiction
I
SpecificationorDesignation91A213T91(seamlesstubes)A335P91(seamlesspipes)A387Gr91(plates)A182/A336F91(forgings)A217C12A(castings)A234WP91A369FP91EN10222-2;1.4903(XlOCrMoVNb9-1)1503Gr91NFA-49213/A-49219Gr
TV
Z10CDVNb09-01ASTMDIN/ENBSAFNORJapan911DIN
91
ASTM1.4905(XIICrMoWVNb911)G-XI2CrMoWVNbN1011(cast)A213Tn(seamlesstubes)A335
pn
(seamlesspipes)A387Gr92(plates)A182F92(forgings)A369FP92(forged
&
boredpipe)XI0CrWMoVNb9-2Nf616KA-STPA29(pie)KA-SFVAF29(forging)KA-STBA29(tube)HCM12AHCMI2,KA-SUS410J2TBA213T23(seamlesstubes)ENJapan122JapanT23ASTMENJapanHCM2SKA-STPA24Jl(pipe)KA-SFVAF22AJ1(forging)KA-STBA24Jl(tube)7CrMoVTiB
10-10
I
T24GermanyTable3-ASMECodeAcceptanceIssueDateradeNameGradeNF616P92HCM12AP122HCM2ST23E911E911Material(seamless)CodeCase9Cr-2W12Cr-2W2.25Cr-1.6W-V-Cb
I
9Cr-lMo-W-Cb2179218021992327August8,1994August8,1994June5,1995May2,20()OTable4-ExampleWeldingConsumables
I
P91P92*E911"1T23*T24*P122*SMAWE9015-B9XXXXXGTAWER90S-B9XXXXFCAWE91T1-B9XXSAWEB9XXX*FillermetalsavailabletomanufacturerorOEMspreCificationsonly.
aimfor
2000-2S00q(
-400°-500°F),butwill
II
nterpass
goaslowas121°g(2S0°F)forrootandho
I
passlayer.,thin-walledcomponents,orAtypicalmaximuminterpasstemper-"whereGTAWisutilized.Experienceindi-atureis300°C
(S7rF);
lessisacceptablecatesthatnoelevatedpreheatisrequiredIbutnomorethan370°C(700°F).Thein-forT23orT24weldments;however,some'~erpassmaximumHelpstopreventth~codebodiesincludingASMErequirepre-:Jossibilityofhotcrackingduetothesili-heatorpostweldheattreatment(PWHT)conandniobiumcontentoftheweldforthesealloys(Table7).
.nctal,
Fieldoperationsrarelyhaveprob-
Table5-ConsumablesListedinASME/AWSSpecificationsforWeldingP91ProcessSpecification,
NSFA
ClassificationSMAW5.5SAW5.23GTAW5.28FCAW5.29E90XX-B9EB9
+
fluxER90S-B9E91Tl-B9
lemswithinterpasstemperatureonheavysections(Refs.9,20).
Postweld'Bake-Out'
postweld"bake-out"maybeofcriticalimportance,especiallyforeavysectionsorwhereflux-typeprocessesareused.Thisinvolvesmain-tainingthepreheat/interpasstemperatureforanextendedperiodoftimesubsequenttointerruptionorcompletionoftheweld.Whenestablishingthelengthoftimenec-essary,factorsthatplayaroleincludethicknessofthematerial,lengthoftimetheweldmenthasbeenexposedtotheheatregime,andtheextentof"lowhy-drogen"practicesused.hereproperpreheat,consumables,andstorage/han-dlingareimplemented,bake-outscanbeminimizedoreveneliminated.
interruptionofHeatingCycle
Interruptionoftheheatcycleshouldbeavoidedifatallpossible.Themassoftheweldmentmustbeconsidered.In-creasesinpipewallthicknesstranslateintoincreasesintherestraintontheweldandthecoolingratefromweldingtem-peratures.Therefore,theweldareaissub-jectedtohighresidualstressesatatimewhenitmayhaveminimumsectionthick-ness(orstrength)andbelessductile.
IfJ~
L•.interruptionisunavoidable,atleastont;l..L
t;\~~
fourthofthewallthicknessshouldbede-
1\AlJ
-positedandpreheatmustbemaintained
W.2.1.
untiltnegrooveiscomRletedorapost-bakeimplemented.
PostweldHeatTreatment
pplicationofPWHTisabsolutelynecessar)\withGrade91,911,92,nd122weldrnents,regardlessofdiameterorthickness.·-PWHTisoneofthemostimportantfac-torsinproducingsatisfactoryweld-ments.ThePWHTmethodologyandimplementationmustbeverifiedtoen-surethattheweldmentsareactuallyre-ceivingPWHTatthepropertempera-ture.Additionalthermocouplesorqual-ificationtestingmayberequired.Propertemperingofthemartensiticmicrostructureisessentialforobtaining
WELDINGJOURNAL
1'1

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