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09022012-Mohr s Circle

09022012-Mohr s Circle

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Published by: Muhammad Adil Khattak on Mar 23, 2012
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OPTI 222 Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering
98
Mohr's Circle for Plane Stress
Analysis of Stress and Strain:
 As we learned in the previous two lectures, when a structural element is subjected toseveral types of loads acting simultaneously, say bending and torsion, principal stressesoccur. These stresses act on principal planes where the shear stresses are zero. Inaddition, many engineering problems, such as axial bars, beams in bending and circular members in torsion, are examples of a state of stress called
plane stress
(
σ
z
=
τ
zx
=
τ
zy
 = 0). Our procedure for determining principal stresses for a state of plane stress is asfollows:1. Determine the point on the body in which the principal stresses are to bedetermined.2. Treating the load cases independently and calculated the stresses for thepoint chosen. When applicable combine the stresses to determine the stateof stress at the point.3. Choose a set of x-y reference axes and draw a square element centered onthe axes.4. Identify the stresses
σ
x
,
σ
y
, and
τ
xy
=
τ
yx
and list them with the proper direction.5. Calculate the principal stresses, the maximum shear stress and the principalplane if required.Principal Stresses (
Shear Stress = 0 
):
221
22
 x y x y xy
σ σ σ σ σ τ 
+ = + +
 
222
22
 x y x y xy
σ σ σ σ σ τ 
+ = +
 
Maximum Shear Stress:
22max
2
 x y xy
σ σ τ τ 
= +
 
12max
2
σ σ τ 
=
 
 
OPTI 222 Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering
99
Principal Planes (
Planes on which Principal Stresses Act 
):
1
22tan
xy p x y
τ θ σ σ 
=
 
Plane of Maximum Shear Stress:
 
1
2tan2
 x y s xy
σ σ θ τ 
=
 
 Average Stress (
Shear Stress is Maximum
):
2
 x yavg 
σ σ σ 
+=
 
Important Observations:1. Principal stresses occur on mutually perpendicular planes.2. Shear stresses are zero on principal planes.3. Planes of maximum shear stress occur at 45
°
to the principal planes.4. The maximum shear stress is equal to one half the difference of the principalstresses.It should be noted that the equation for principal planes, 2
θ
p
, yields two angles between0
°
and 360
°
. Which one corresponds to
σ
1
and which to
σ
2
? This can be determined bysubstituting one of the values into the stress transformation equation for normal stress.Normal Stress Transformation
cos2sin222
 x y x yn xy
σ σ σ σ σ θ τ θ 
+ = + +
 
Shear Stress Transformation
( )( )
22
sincoscossin
nt x y xy
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ 
= +
 
 
OPTI 222 Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering
100
Example Problem:Determine:a) The principal planes.b) The principal stresses.c) The maximum shear stress and the corresponding normal stress.
Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress:
The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in a graphical formatknown as Mohr’s circle. This representation is useful in visualizing the relationshipsbetween normal and shear stresses acting on various inclined planes at a point in astressed body.Before we discuss the procedure for constructing Mohr’s circle there a several rules thatapply.Stress Component PlotNormal Stresses + For Tension(
Horizontal Axis
) - For CompressionShear Stresses + For Clockwise Shear (
Vertical Axis
) - For Counterclockwise Shear 

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