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17 Time and Distance

# 17 Time and Distance

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06/12/2013

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17
17.1DEFINITION
Thespeedofamovingbodyisthedistancetravelledbyitinunittime.Hence,Totaldistancetravelled
(d)
Speed
V
=--------
Totaltimetaken
(t)
orTotaldistancetravelled
=
speedxtotaltime
d
=
V
X
t
17.2AVERAGESPEED
If
amovingbodytravels
d.,d
2,
d
3,...
dn
metres,movingwithdifferentspeeds
VI,V
2,
V
3,...
Vn
metres/secondsintime
t
l,
t
2,
t
3,...
t;
secondsrespectively,thenitisnecessarytocalculatetheaveragespeedofthebodythroughoutthejourney.
If
theaveragespeedisdenotedby
Va'
then,
V
=
a
TotalDistancetravelledTotalTime
taken
Averagespeedforwholejourney
d]+d
2
+···+dn
V
=-------
a
tI
+t2+...+tnVI
t
1
+
V
2
t
2
+...+
VII
t
n
V=---------
a
t1
+t2+...+tn
since
d
=
vt
d
j
+d
2
+...+dn
V
=~--~----~-
a
d
1
d
2
d
n
V;
+
V
2
+...+
v,,-
.d
SInCe
t=-
V

17-2QuantitativeAptitudeforCompetitiveExaminations
Example:Acartravels600
km
in11hoursandanother800kmin17hours.Findtheaveragespeedoftheuringtheentirejourney.
dution:
Here,distanceandtimeareknown.
d
j
+
d
2
+...
+d
n
averagespeed
=
-=---"-----
t[
+
t2
+...
tIl
600+80011+17
=
50kmlhour..theaveragespeedis50kmperhour.
E_'\illDple:A
busmoves300kmat
a
speedof
45
km
perhOUTandthenitincreasesitsspeedto60kmperhourtotravelanother500km.Findtheaveragespeedofthebus.
tuuon:
Heredistanceandspeedareknown.Timeisnotknown...weusetherelation,
d
j
+d
2
+...+d
n
d
j
d
2
a,
-+-+...+-
VI
V
2
Vn
thetimeisnotknown,sothedenominatorofthepreviousproblem,i.e,time,hasbeenreplacedby
di
tance
d,d
2
a,
---.Hence,
t;
t
2,
tn
havebeenreplacedby-,-speed
VI
V
2
Vn
300+500averagespeed
=
300500
-+-
4560800
=
20
+
25
33
800x3
45
=
53.!.kmperhOUT.
3
theaveragespeedis53.!.kmperhOUT.
3
17.3DISTANCECOVEREDISSAME
Letabody,movingwithtwodifferentspeeds,say
VI
and
V
2,
coverthesamedistance
d,
in
time
tl
and
l~
respectivelythen,

TimeandDistance17-3
(a)(b)
Now,
=>
distance
d
=
speedxtime
=
V/
1
=
Vizd
2
=
V
1
Vl
1
t
1
=>
VIV
2
VI
+
V
2
VI-V
2
(BycomponendoandDividendo)
'2
'I
t2
+
t1
'2-
tl
/rV
l
ih'
V
2
sumofspeeddifferenceofspeed
=>
-
sumoftimedifferenceoftime
2
tl
)c)
Combining(a)and
(b),
wegetanotherusefulrelation:
J
d
!
roductofspeed
=
differenceofspeedproductoftime
d
differenceoftimeMemory
Tip
'Speed'termsareinnumeratorand'time'termsareinthedenominator(d)Tofindthedistancewhenabsolutevaluesofspeedandtimearenotknown.Whenspeedisincreasedby
x,
thetimereducesby
(a),
tocoverthesamedistance
(d)
andwhenspeedisdecreasedby
y.
thetimeincreasesby
(b),
tocoverthesamedistance
(d)
then.
(x+y)(a+b)
distance
=
d
=
x
xyab(xb-ya)2
'----v-----'
LI----:~~FollowthearrowsExample:
An
increaseinthespeedofacarby10kIDperhoursaves30minutesinajourneyof100kID.Findtheinitialspeedofthecar.
Solution:
Here,distance,differenceintimeandchange(difference)inspeedareknown.butspeed*istobefoundout.Lettheinitialspeedofthecar
=
V
km/h
Thenewspeedofthecar
=
(V
+
10)kmIhr.Usingtherelation
('.3-
(cj),(asspeed*istobefoundout)productofspeeds*differenceinspeed
=
d
differenceintime
V(V+lO)
10(.:30minutes
=
30hOur)
-
-
10030
60
60
=>
V(V
+
10)
=
2,000.
=>
V(V
+
10)
=
40
x
50
.J1.
..P
Withoutfurthersolving,itappearsthat
V
=
40
kmIh.
~"I'.r
:.theinitialspeedofthecaris40kIDperhour.