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Enterprise Risk Management - Theory and Practice - Brian W. Nocco, Nationwide Insurance, and René M. Stulz, Ohio State University

Enterprise Risk Management - Theory and Practice - Brian W. Nocco, Nationwide Insurance, and René M. Stulz, Ohio State University

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by Brian W. Nocco, Nationwide Insurance, and René M. Stulz, Ohio State University*
he past two decades have seen a dramatic changein the role of risk management in corporations.Twenty years ago, the job of the corporate risk manager—typically, a low-level position in thecorporate treasury—involved mainly the purchase of insur-ance. At the same time, treasurers were responsible for thehedging of interest rate and foreign exchange exposures. Overthe last ten years, however, corporate risk management hasexpanded well beyond insurance and the hedging of financialexposures to include a variety of other kinds of risk—notably operational risk, reputational risk, and, most recently, stra-tegic risk. What’s more, at a large and growing number of companies, the risk management function is directed by a senior executive with the title of chief risk officer (CRO) andoverseen by a board of directors charged with monitoring risk measures and setting limits for these measures. A corporation can manage risks in one of two funda-mentally different ways: (1) one risk at a time, on a largely compartmentalized and decentralized basis; or (2) all risksviewed together within a coordinated and strategic framework.The latter approach is often called “enterprise risk manage-ment,” or “ERM” for short. In this article, we suggest thatcompanies that succeed in creating an effective ERM have a long-run competitive advantage over those that manage andmonitor risks individually. Our argument in brief is that, by measuring and managing its risks consistently and systemati-cally, and by giving its business managers the information andincentives to optimize the tradeoff between risk and return, a company strengthens its ability to carry out its strategic plan.In the pages that follow, we start by explaining how ERMcan give companies a competitive advantage and add valuefor shareholders. Next we describe the process and challengesinvolved in implementing ERM. We begin by discussing how a company should assess its risk “appetite,” an assess-ment that should guide management’s decision about how much and which risks to retain and which to lay off. Thenwe show how companies should measure their risks. Third,we discuss various means of laying off “non-core” risks,which, as we argue below, increases the firm’s capacity forbearing those “core” risks the firm chooses to retain. ThoughERM is conceptually straightforward, its implementation isnot. And in the last—and longest—section of the chapter,we provide an extensive guide to the major difficulties thatarise in practice when implementing ERM.
How Does ERM Create Shareholder Value?
ERM creates value through its effects on companies at botha “macro” or company-wide level and a “micro” or busi-ness-unit level. At the macro level, ERM creates value by enabling senior management to quantify and manage therisk-return tradeoff that faces the entire firm. By adopting this perspective, ERM helps the firm maintain access to thecapital markets and other resources necessary to implementits strategy and business plan. At the micro level, ERM becomes a way of life for manag-ers and employees at all levels of the company. Though theacademic literature has concentrated mainly on the macro-level benefits of ERM, the micro-level benefits are extremely important in practice. As we argue below, a well-designedERM system ensures that all material risks are “owned,”and risk-return tradeoffs carefully evaluated, by operating managers and employees throughout the firm.
The Macro Benefits of Risk Management
Students in the first finance course of an MBA programoften come away with the “perfect markets” view that sinceshareholders can diversify their own portfolios, the valueof a firm does not depend on its “total” risk. In this view, a company’s cost of capital, which is a critical determinant of its P/E ratio, depends mainly on the “systematic” or “non-diversifiable component of that risk (as typically measuredby a company’s “beta”). And this in turn implies that effortsto manage total risk are a waste of corporate resources.But in the real world, where investors’ informationis far from complete and financial troubles can disrupt a company’s operations, a bad outcome resulting from a “diversifiable” risk—say, an unexpected spike in a currency or commodity price—can have costs that go well beyond theimmediate hit to cash flow and earnings. In the language of economists, such risks can have large “deadweight” costs.
1
8Journal of Applied Corporate Finance
Volume 18 Number 4 A Morgan Stanley Publication
Fall 2006
Enterprise Risk Management: Theory and Practice
* We are grateful for comments from Don Chew, Michael Hofmann, Joanne Lamm-Tennant, Tom O’Brien, Jérôme Taillard, and William Wilt.1. There is a large academic literature that investigates how firm value depends ontotal risk. For a review of that literature, see René Stulz,
Risk Management and Deriva-tives
, Southwestern Publishing, 2002.
 
To illustrate, if a company expects operating cash flow of $200 million for the year and instead reports a loss of $50million, a cash shortfall of this size can be far more costly tothe firm than just the missing $250 million. First of all, tothe extent it affects the market’s expectation of future cashflows and earnings, such a shortfall will generally be associ-ated with a reduction in firm value of much more than $250million—a reduction that reflects the market’s expectationof lower growth. And even if operating cash flow reboundsquickly, there could be other, longer-lasting effects. Forexample, assume the company has a number of strategicinvestment opportunities that require
immediate 
funding.Unless the firm has considerable excess cash or unused debtcapacity, it may be faced with the tough choice of cutting back on planned investments or raising equity in difficultcircumstances and on expensive terms. If the cost of issuing equity is high enough, management may have little choicebut to cut investment. And unlike the adjustment of marketexpectations in response to what proves to be a temporary cash shortfall, the loss in value from the firm having to passup positive-NPV projects represents a 
 permanent 
reductionin value.For most companies, guarding against this corpo-rate “underinvestment problem” is likely to be the mostimportant reason to manage risk. By hedging or otherwisemanaging risk, a firm can limit (to an agreed-upon level)the probability that a large cash shortfall will lead to value-destroying cutbacks in investment. And it is in this sensethat the main function of corporate risk management canbe seen as protecting a company’s ability to carry out itsbusiness plan.But which risks should a company lay off and whichshould it retain? Corporate exposures to changes in curren-cies, interest rates, and commodity prices can often behedged fairly inexpensively using derivatives such asforwards, futures, swaps, and options. For instance, a foreign exchange hedging program using forward contractstypically has very low transaction costs; and when the trans-fer of risk is inexpensive, there is a strong case for laying off economic risks that could otherwise undermine a compa-ny’s ability to execute its strategic plan.On the other hand, companies in the course of theirnormal activities take many strategic or business risks thatthey cannot profitably lay off in capital markets or otherdeveloped risk transfer markets. For instance, a company with a promising plan to expand its business typically cannot find an economic hedge—if indeed there is any hedge at all—for the business risks associated with pursu-ing such growth. The company’s management presumably understands the risks of such expansion better than any insurance or derivatives provider—if they don’t, thecompany probably shouldn’t be undertaking the project.If the company were to seek a counterparty to bear suchbusiness risks, the costs of transferring such risks wouldlikely be prohibitively high, since they would have to behigh enough to compensate the counterparty for trans-acting with a better informed party and for constructing models to evaluate the risks they’re being asked to hedge.For this reason, we should not be surprised that insurancecompanies do not offer insurance contracts that providecomplete coverage for earnings shortfalls or that there isno market for derivatives for which the underlying is a company’s earnings. The insured companies would be ina position not only to know more than the insurers aboutthe distribution of their future earnings, but to manipulatethat distribution to increase the payoffs from such insur-ance policies. A firm that entered into a derivatives contractwith its earnings as the underlying would have a similaradvantage over a derivatives dealer.More generally, in making decisions whether to retain ortransfer risks, companies should be guided by the principleof 
comparative advantage in risk-bearing 
.
2
A company thathas no special ability to forecast market variables has nocomparative advantage in bearing the risk associated withthose variables. In contrast, the same company should havea comparative advantage in bearing information-intensive,firm-specific business risks because it knows more aboutthese risks than anybody else. For example, at NationwideInsurance, exposures to changes in interest rates and equity markets are managed in strict ranges, with excess exposuresreduced through asset repositioning or hedging. At the sametime, Nationwide retains the vast majority of its insurancerisks, a decision that reflects the firm’s advantage relative toany potential risk transfer counterparty in terms of experi-ence with and knowledge of such risks.One important benefit of thinking in terms of compar-ative advantage is to reinforce the message that companiesare in business to
take strategic and business risks 
. The recog-nition that there are no economical ways of transferring risks that are unique to a company’s business operationscan serve to underscore the potential value of reduc-ing the firm’s exposure to other, “non-core” risks.
3
Oncemanagement has decided that the firm has a comparativeadvantage in taking certain business risks, it should userisk management to help the firm make the most of thisadvantage. Which brings us to a paradox of risk manage-ment: By reducing non-core exposures, ERM effectively enables companies to take more strategic business risk—and greater advantage of the opportunities in their corebusiness.
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance
Volume 18 Number 4 A Morgan Stanley Publication
Fall 20069
2. For an extended treatment of this concept, see René Stulz, “Rethinking Risk Man-agement,”
 Journal of Applied Corporate Finance
, Vol. 9 No. 3, Fall 1996.3. For a discussion of core and non-core risks, see Robert Merton, “You Have MoreCapital Than You Think,”
Harvard Business Review
(November, 2005).
 
The Micro Benefits of ERM
 As discussed above, an increase in total risk can end upreducing value by causing companies to pass up valuableprojects or otherwise disrupting the normal operations of the firm. These costs associated with total risk should beaccounted for when assessing the risk-return tradeoff in allmajor new investments. If the company takes on a proj-ect that increases the firm’s total risk, the project shouldbe sufficiently profitable to provide an adequate return oncapital
after 
compensating for the costs associated with theincrease in risk. This risk-return tradeoff must be evaluatedfor all corporate decisions that are expected to have a mate-rial impact on total risk.Thus, a major challenge for a company implementing ERM is to ensure that decision-making not just by seniormanagement, but by business managers
throughout the firm
,takes proper account of the risk-return tradeoff. To make thishappen, the risk evaluations of new projects must be performed,at least initially, on a decentralized basis by the project plannersin the business units. A completely centralized evaluation of the risk-return tradeoff of individual projects would lead tocorporate gridlock. Take the extreme case of a trader. Central-ized evaluation would require the CRO’s approval of each of the trader’s decisions with a potentially material impact on thefirm’s risk. But in a decentralized evaluation of the risk-returntradeoff, each unit in the corporation evaluates this tradeoff in its decision making. An important part of senior manage-ment’s and the CRO’s job is to provide the information andincentives for each unit to make these tradeoffs in ways thatserve the interests of the shareholders.There are two main components of decentralizing therisk-return tradeoff in a company:a) First, managers proposing new projects should berequired to evaluate all major risks in the context of themarginal impact of the projects on the firm’s total risk. Thecompany’s decision-making framework should require thebusiness managers to evaluate project returns in relationto the marginal increases in firm-wide risk to achieve theoptimal amount of risk at the corporate level.b) Second, to help ensure that managers do a good jobof assessing the risk-return tradeoff, the periodic perfor-mance evaluations of the business units must take accountof the contributions of each of the units to the total risk of the firm. As we will see later, this can be done by assign-ing a level of additional “imputed” capital to the project toreflect such incremental risk—capital on which the projectmanager will be expected to earn an adequate return. By sodoing, the corporation not only measures its true economicperformance, but also creates incentives for managers tomanage the risk-return tradeoff effectively by refusing toaccept risks that are not economically attractive. With the help of these two mechanisms that are essen-tial to the management of firm-wide risk, a company thatimplements ERM can transform its culture. Without thesemeans, risk will be accounted for in an ad hoc, subjectiveway, or ignored. In the former case, promising projectscould be rejected when risks are overstated. In the lattercase, systems that ignore risk will end up encouraging high-risk projects, in many cases without the returns to justify them. Perhaps even more troubling, one divisioncould take a project that another would reject based ona different assessment of the project’s risk and associatedcosts. With the above capital allocation and performanceevaluation system mechanisms put in place when ERM isimplemented, business managers are forced to consider theimpact of all material risks in their investment and operat-ing decisions. In short, every risk is “owned” since it affectssomeone’s performance evaluation.Spreading risk ownership throughout the company hasbecome more important as the scope of risk managementhas expanded to include operating and reputational risks.Ten or 20 years ago, when risk management focused mainly on financial risks, companies could centrally measure andmanage their exposures to market rates. But operationalrisks typically cannot be hedged. Some of these risks canbe insured, but companies often choose to reduce theirexposure to such risks by changing procedures and technol-ogies. The individuals who are closest to these risks aregenerally in the best position to assess what steps should betaken to reduce the firm’s exposure to them. So, for example,decisions to manage operating risks are often entrusted toline managers whose decisions are based on their knowl-edge of the business, and supplemented by technical expertswhere appropriate.Nationwide has developed a “factor-based” capitalallocation approach for its management accounting andperformance evaluation system. Capital factors are assignedto products based on the perceived risk of such products.For example, the risk associated with, and capital allocatedto, insuring a home in a hurricane- or earthquake-pronearea is greater than that for a home in a non-catastropheexposed region.One of the most important purposes of such a risk-basedcapital allocation system is to provide business managerswith more information about how their own investment andoperating decisions are likely to affect both corporate-wideperformance and the measures by which their performancewill be evaluated. When combined with a performanceevaluation system in this way, a risk-based capital allocationapproach effectively forces the business managers to considerrisk in their decision-making. Nationwide’s risk factors areupdated annually as part of the strategic and operationalplanning process, reflecting changes in risk and diversifica-tion. Decision-making authority is delegated by means of a risk limit structure that is consistent with Nationwide’s risk appetite framework.
10Journal of Applied Corporate Finance
Volume 18 Number 4 A Morgan Stanley Publication
Fall 2006

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