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08032012-Strain Transformation Doc

# 08032012-Strain Transformation Doc

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03/25/2012

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ENG5312 – Mechanics of Solids II
Strain Transformation
Plane Strain
The general state of strain at a point in a body is composed of threecomponents of normal strain (
ε
x
,
ε
y
and
ε
z
), and three components of shear strain (
γ
xy
,
γ
xz
and
γ
yz
).
As for stress the given strains may be transformed to components alongalternate co-ordinate directions.
One common use of this technique is to transform strains measured alongparticular directions on a strain gauge rosette into other directions.
Consider only strain in the
x
,
plane (i.e.
ε
x
,
ε
y
and
γ
xy
):
Note: Plane stress does not cause plane strain. If an element issubjected to normal stresses
σ
x
and
σ
y
, normal strains
ε
x
,
ε
y
and
ε
z
areproduced. Normal strain
ε
z
results from the Poisson effect.11

ENG5312 – Mechanics of Solids II
General Equations of Plane-Strain Transformation
Sign Convention
o
ε
x
and
ε
y
are positive if they cause elongation along the
x
and
y
axes, respectively.
o
γ
xy
is positive if the interior angle AOB becomes smaller than 90
o
.
The goal will be to obtain strain transformation to the
x
',
y
'
plane at anangle
θ
to the
x
,
plane.12

ENG5312 – Mechanics of Solids II
To determine
ε
x
'
we need to find the change in length of
dx
'
due to
ε
x
,
ε
y
and
γ
xy
.
Normal strain
ε
x
will cause a change in length of
dx
'
:
ε
x
dx
cos
Normal strain
ε
y
will cause a change in length of
dx
'
:
ε
y
dy
sin
Shear strain
γ
xy
will cause a change in length of
dx
'
:
γ
xy
dy
cos
13