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FORCED VIBRATION OF MULTI-DOF CANTILEVER BEAM

# FORCED VIBRATION OF MULTI-DOF CANTILEVER BEAM

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11/02/2013

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EXPERIMENT 5FORCED VIBRATIONS OF CANTILEVER BEAM(CONTINUOUS SYSTEM)
5.1 Objective of the Experiment
The aim of the experiment is to analyze the forced vibrations of the continuous cantilever beam, thephenomena of resonances, the phase of the vibration signal and to obtain the fundamental naturalfrequency and damping ratio of the system, and compare the results with theoretically calculated values.The basic aim of these experiments is to provide a feel of actual experimentsalong with learning of basic components while performing the virtual experiments.
5.2 Basic Definitions
Forced vibration:
When a dynamic system is subjected to a steady-state harmonic excitation, it is forcedto vibrate at the same frequency as that of the excitation. The harmonic excitation can be given in manyways like with constant frequency and variable frequency or a swept-sine frequency, in which thefrequency changes from the initial to final values of frequencies with a given time-rate (i.e., ramp).If the frequency of excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition of
resonance
is encountered and dangerously large oscillations may result, which results in failure of majorstructures, i.e., bridges, buildings, or airplane wings etc. Hence, the natural frequency of the system is thefrequency at which the resonance occurs. At the point of resonance the displacement of the system is amaximum.Thus calculation of natural frequencies is of major importance in the study of vibrations. Because of friction & other resistances vibrating systems are subjected to
damping
to some degree due to dissipationof energy. Damping has very
little effect on natural frequency
of the system, and hence the calculationsfor natural frequencies are generally made on the basis of no damping. Damping is of great importance in
limiting the amplitude
of oscillation at resonance.The relative displacement configuration of the vibrating system for a particular natural frequency isknown as the eigen function in the continuous system. For every natural frequency there would be acorresponding eigen function. The mode shape corresponding to lowest natural frequency (i.e. thefundamental natural frequency) is called as the fundamental (or the first) mode. The displacements atsome points may be zero. These points are known as
nodes
. Generally for higher modes the number of nodes increases. The mode shape changes for different boundary conditions of the beam.

5.3 Mathematical analysis
Fixed supportFree endBeam
Figure 5.1 (a) A cantilever beam
ExiciterL1
Figure 5.1 (b) The beam under forced vibrations
Fig 5.1(a) is showing a cantilever beam which is fixed at one end and other end is fixed, havingrectangular cross-section.Fig 5.1(b) is showing the cantilever beam which is subjected to forced vibration. An exciter isused to give excitation to the system. The exciter is capable to generate different type of forcingsignal e.g. sine, swept sine, rectangular, triangular etc.
Continuous Beam Model
: In actual case, the beam is a continuous system, i.e. the mass alongwith the stiffness is distributed throughout the beam. The equation of motion in this case will be
(
Meirovitch, 1967)

2 2 212 2 2
( , ) ( , )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
y x t y x  EI x m x f t x L x x

(5.1)where,
E
is the modulus of rigidity of beam material,
I
is the moment of inertia of the beam cross-section,
y
(
x
,
) is displacement in
y
direction at distance
x
from fixed end,
m
is the mass per unit length,
( )
m A x

,

is the material density,
A
(
x
) is the area of cross-section of the beam,
( )
f
is the forcedapplied to the system at
x
=
L
1
.
Free Vibration Solution
: We have following boundary conditions for a cantilever beam (Fig. 5.1)at
( )0, 0, 0
dY x x Y xdx
(5.3)andat
2 32 3
( ) ( ), 0, 0
d Y x d Y x x ldx dx
(5.4)For a uniform beam under free vibration from equation (5.1), we get
444
( )( ) 0
d Y xY xdx

(5.5)with
24
m EI
  
A closed form of the circular natural frequency
nf

, from above equation of motion for first mode canbe written as
(
Meirovitch, 1967)

24
1.875
nf
EI  AL
  