EXPERIMENT 5FORCED VIBRATIONS OF CANTILEVER BEAM(CONTINUOUS SYSTEM)
5.1 Objective of the Experiment
The aim of the experiment is to analyze the forced vibrations of the continuous cantilever beam, thephenomena of resonances, the phase of the vibration signal and to obtain the fundamental naturalfrequency and damping ratio of the system, and compare the results with theoretically calculated values.The basic aim of these experiments is to provide a feel of actual experimentsalong with learning of basic components while performing the virtual experiments.
5.2 Basic Definitions
When a dynamic system is subjected to a steady-state harmonic excitation, it is forcedto vibrate at the same frequency as that of the excitation. The harmonic excitation can be given in manyways like with constant frequency and variable frequency or a swept-sine frequency, in which thefrequency changes from the initial to final values of frequencies with a given time-rate (i.e., ramp).If the frequency of excitation coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition of
is encountered and dangerously large oscillations may result, which results in failure of majorstructures, i.e., bridges, buildings, or airplane wings etc. Hence, the natural frequency of the system is thefrequency at which the resonance occurs. At the point of resonance the displacement of the system is amaximum.Thus calculation of natural frequencies is of major importance in the study of vibrations. Because of friction & other resistances vibrating systems are subjected to
to some degree due to dissipationof energy. Damping has very
little effect on natural frequency
of the system, and hence the calculationsfor natural frequencies are generally made on the basis of no damping. Damping is of great importance in
limiting the amplitude
of oscillation at resonance.The relative displacement configuration of the vibrating system for a particular natural frequency isknown as the eigen function in the continuous system. For every natural frequency there would be acorresponding eigen function. The mode shape corresponding to lowest natural frequency (i.e. thefundamental natural frequency) is called as the fundamental (or the first) mode. The displacements atsome points may be zero. These points are known as
. Generally for higher modes the number of nodes increases. The mode shape changes for different boundary conditions of the beam.