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Etude de procédé de fabrication d'un produit laitier traditionnel algérien "KLILA"

Etude de procédé de fabrication d'un produit laitier traditionnel algérien "KLILA"

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Published by Samir_Lahsaoui_7783
Several varieties of cheeses are manufactured over the world; it is more than 1000 varieties around the world. Currently cheese is treated by modern technologies. Cheeses play an important role in the human diet. In Algeria; Klila the most popular traditional dairy product is still produced by the traditional method. The main of our study consists in studying the effect of the heat treatment that constitutes the main stage in the process of manufacturing of this cheese on the time of hold (flocculation), on the total solid recovery of the curd and its moisture content, on the physicochemical properties of the cheese, on the kinetics of drying and on the rehydratation properties of the final product, as well as the effect of drying on the physicochemical properties of this product. Klila was manufactured by different controlled heat treatments (55°C, 65°C, 75°C, and 85 °C). The results of the analysis have been compared by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was found that the increase of the severity of the heat treatment, decreases the water content of the curd (low yield), increases the acidity of the cheese, alters the rehydratation properties and decrease the total solid recovery in the curd, but on the other hand it increases retention of cheese in fat and decrease the time of flocculation (energizing gain), Heat treatment had no effect on the ash content of the curd. The drying time of the Klila depends on the initial moisture of the curd, and the final water content in cheese depends on the cutting model, it can go until 3%. The effect of drying is well marked by the increasing of the product acidity and the reduction of moisture content which permits the preservation of the Klila during long periods without risk of microbial contaminations.
Several varieties of cheeses are manufactured over the world; it is more than 1000 varieties around the world. Currently cheese is treated by modern technologies. Cheeses play an important role in the human diet. In Algeria; Klila the most popular traditional dairy product is still produced by the traditional method. The main of our study consists in studying the effect of the heat treatment that constitutes the main stage in the process of manufacturing of this cheese on the time of hold (flocculation), on the total solid recovery of the curd and its moisture content, on the physicochemical properties of the cheese, on the kinetics of drying and on the rehydratation properties of the final product, as well as the effect of drying on the physicochemical properties of this product. Klila was manufactured by different controlled heat treatments (55°C, 65°C, 75°C, and 85 °C). The results of the analysis have been compared by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was found that the increase of the severity of the heat treatment, decreases the water content of the curd (low yield), increases the acidity of the cheese, alters the rehydratation properties and decrease the total solid recovery in the curd, but on the other hand it increases retention of cheese in fat and decrease the time of flocculation (energizing gain), Heat treatment had no effect on the ash content of the curd. The drying time of the Klila depends on the initial moisture of the curd, and the final water content in cheese depends on the cutting model, it can go until 3%. The effect of drying is well marked by the increasing of the product acidity and the reduction of moisture content which permits the preservation of the Klila during long periods without risk of microbial contaminations.

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Published by: Samir_Lahsaoui_7783 on Mar 25, 2012
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RÉPUBLIQUE ALGÉRIENNE DÉMOCRATIQUE ET POPULAIRE
MINISTÈ
RE DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SUP
ÉRIEURET DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUEUniversité El Hadj Lakhdar
 – 
Batna-Faculté des sciences
Département d’Agronomie
Option : Technologie Alimentaire
Mémoire
De Fin D
étude En
vue de l’obtention d
u diplôme
D’Ingénieur D’
État En Agronomie
 
Thème
Devant le Jury : Réalisé Par :Président : M
r.
: GHANNEM H. LAHSAOUI SamirPromoteur : M
r.
: FAHLOUL D.Examinateur :
 
M
r.
: YAMAMI S.
Année Universitaire 2008/2009
Etude du procédé de
fabrication d’un fromage
traditionnel (
Klila 
)
 
 
Remerciements
Comme il est de coutume à la fin d’un travail, je vais remercier ceux sans qui il n’aurait pas
été possible. Il est toujours délicat
d’écrire cette partie car personne ne doit être oublié et ceux
qui sont remerciés se trouveront peut-être injustement placés en telle ou telle position par
rapport à un autre. De plus, l’objet du remerciement peut parfois être
ironique, parfois êtresincère et souvent, politiquement correct. Après ces quelques petites réflexions, voici mesremerciements.
J’aimerais tout d’abord exprimer ma grande reconnaissance au
docteur Djamel FAHLOULpour son encadrement exemplaire et ses grandes qualités humaines et scientifiques. Je me
sens très privilégié d’avoir pu effectuer mo
n mémoire sous sa directionJe remercie également Monsieur le docteur Hanachi GHANNEM et Monsieur Sebti
YAMAMI d’avoir accepté d’être les membres du jury de cette étude. J’aimerais avoir réussi à
leur rendre agréable la lecture de ce mémoireJe tiens ensuite à remercier M
lle
Salima pour son aide technique irréprochable, sa gentillesse etsa grande disponibilité
Enfin, je remercie chaleureusement les étudiants avec lesquels j’ai eu la joie de partager l’espace de travail
; Mouloud, Laarbi, Hanane, Ahlem et Hind, Merci pour votre amitié.
 
Table des matières
INTRODUCTIONETUDE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUECHAPITRE 01 : GENERALITES SUR LES FROMAGES
1.
 
Historique et origine des fromages
.........................................................................................
.32.
 
Définition du fromage
............................................................................................................
33.
 
Méthode générale de fabrication des fromages
......................................................................
43.1.
 
Coagulation
....................................................................................................................
43.1.1. La coagulation acide
.....................................................................................
43.1.2. La coagulation par la présure ........................................................................ 43.1.3. La coagulation par les extraits de plantes ...................................................... 53.1.4.
 
La coagulation mixte................................................................................... 53.2.
 
Egouttage .................................................................................................................. 53.2.1. Egouttage du coagulum acide ...................................................................... 63.2.2. Egouttage du coagulum enzymatique .......................................................... 63.2.3. Egouttage du coagulum mixte ....................................................................... 63.3. Salage ........................................................................................................................... 63.4. Affinage ...................................................................................................................... 74.
 
Classification des fromages ................................................................................................. 84.1.
 
La notion de fromage à appellation contrôlée (AOC) .............................................. 84.2.
 
Principaux classifications des fromages ................................................................... 84.1.1.
 
La classification de KELLING ...................................................................84.1.2.
 
Classification du codex alimentaire ............................................................ 94.1.3.
 
La classification deSteven Jenkins ............................................................. 105.
 
Composition, intérêt nutritionnelle et thérapeutique des fromages ..................................... 115.1.
 
La matière grasse ...................................................................................................... 125.2.
 
Les protéines ............................................................................................................. 125.3.
 
Le lactose .................................................................................................................. 135.4.
 
Minéraux et vitamines .............................................................................................. 135.5.
 
Intérêts thérapeutiques .............................................................................................. 14

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