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Toxicología Ambiental - Evaluación de Riesgos y Restauración Ambiental

Toxicología Ambiental - Evaluación de Riesgos y Restauración Ambiental

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Published by: Pablo Parodi on Mar 25, 2012
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h t t p :/ / s u p e r f u n d .p h a r m a c y .a r i z o n a .e d u / t o x a m b
TOXICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL
Evaluación de Riesgos yRestauración Ambiental
Carlos E. PeñaDean E. CarterFelix Ayala-Fierro
Southwest Hazardous Waste Program
A Superfund Basic Research and Training ProgramAt the College of PharmacyThe University of Arizona© 2001
 
RECONOCIMIENTO
Este trabajo se realizó gracias al apoyo del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias de la Salud Ambiental del Gobiernode los Estados Unidos de América dentro del Proyecto de Investigación Básica para el Superfund otorgado a laUniversidad de Arizona (Grant P42 ESO 4940).
COPYRIGHT
This document is copyright © Carlos E. Peña, Dean E. Carter and Felix Ayala-Fierro, The University of Arizona 1996-2001. This Adobe Acrobat™ version was prepared as a courtesy for offline reading from theoriginal online version, which is available at http://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/toxamb/. The onlineversion is the latest and only authoritative version.This document may be reproduced in whole or in part, without fee, subject to the following restrictions:
 
The copyright notice above and this permission notice must be preserved complete on all complete or partialcopies.
 
If you distribute this work in part, instructions for obtaining the complete original version of this documentmust be included.
 
Small portions may be reproduced as illustrations for reviews or quotes in other works without thispermission notice if proper citation is given.Exceptions to these rules may be granted for academic purposes by contacting the author.
How to cite this document
The original online version should be cited:Peña, Carlos E., Dean E. Carter and Felix Ayala-Fierro. 2001. Toxicologia Ambiental: Evaluación de Riesgos yRestauración Ambiental. Distributed on the Internet via the Southwest Hazardous Waste Program website athttp://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/toxamb/.
 
TOXICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL: Evaluación de Riesgos y Restauración Ambiental
2
© 2001 The University of Arizona http://superfund.pharmacy.arizona.edu/toxamb/ 
TABLA DE CONTENIDO
1
INTRODUCCIÓN8
1.1E
LEMENTOS DE BIOLOGÍA
...........................................................................................................................81.1.1Bioquímica........................................................................................................................................81.1.2Citología.........................................................................................................................................231.1.3Fisiología........................................................................................................................................301.2D
EFINICIÓN DE CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS
........................................................................................................401.2.1Toxicología ambiental....................................................................................................................401.2.2Medio ambiente..............................................................................................................................401.2.3Exposición......................................................................................................................................411.2.4Blanco.............................................................................................................................................411.2.5Ruta de exposición..........................................................................................................................411.2.6Efecto tóxico...................................................................................................................................421.2.7Dosis...............................................................................................................................................421.2.8Susceptibilidad individual...............................................................................................................431.2.9Suposiciones básicas.......................................................................................................................431.2.10Riesgo..............................................................................................................................................451.2.11Evaluación de riesgos para la salud humana (ER)...........................................................................451.2.12Restauración ambiental...................................................................................................................461.2.13Prevención de la contaminación......................................................................................................47
2
TOXICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL48
2.1I
NTRODUCCIÓN
.........................................................................................................................................482.2C
UANTIFICACIÓN DE TÓXICOS EN EL ORGANISMO
.....................................................................................492.2.1Muestreo biológico.........................................................................................................................492.2.2Biomarcadores................................................................................................................................512.3T
OXICODINÁMICA
....................................................................................................................................532.3.1Absorción........................................................................................................................................542.3.2Distribución....................................................................................................................................582.3.3Excreción........................................................................................................................................602.3.4Metabolismo...................................................................................................................................622.3.5Toxicocinética.................................................................................................................................712.4R
ESPUESTA TÓXICA
..................................................................................................................................732.4.1Caracterización de la respuesta tóxica............................................................................................732.4.2Factores que afectan la toxicidad....................................................................................................812.5R
ELACION DOSIS
-
RESPUESTA
....................................................................................................................902.5.1Curvas Dósis-Respuesta..................................................................................................................912.5.2Indices de toxicidad........................................................................................................................95
3
EVALUACIÓN DE RIESGOS AMBIENTALES102
3.1A
NÁLISIS DE RIESGOS
.............................................................................................................................1023.1.1Introducción..................................................................................................................................1023.1.2Conceptos Básicos........................................................................................................................1023.1.3Usos del análisis de riesgos...........................................................................................................1033.1.4Metodología y Técnicas................................................................................................................1033.2E
STIMACIÓN DE LA EXPOSICIÓN
..............................................................................................................1053.2.1Escenario de exposición................................................................................................................1053.2.2Ruta de exposición........................................................................................................................1083.2.3Cuantificación de la exposición....................................................................................................1113.3C
ARACTERIZACIÓN DE RIESGOS
..............................................................................................................1143.3.1Evaluación de la exposición..........................................................................................................115

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