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Mold Capitolul2

Mold Capitolul2

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Published by Emilian Popa

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Published by: Emilian Popa on Mar 26, 2012
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Emilian Popa Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012
Resin Transfer moldingIntroductionResin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a closed mold process in which matched made and female molds, preplacedwith fiber preform, are clamped to form composite components. Resin mix is transferred into the cavitythrough injection ports at a relatively low pressure. Injection pressure is normally less than 690 kPa (or 100 psi). The displaced air is allowed to escape through vents to avoid dry spots. Cure cycle is dependent on partthickness , type of resin system and the temperature of the mold and resin system. The parts cures in the mold,normally, heated by controller, and is ready for its removal from the mold when sufficient green strength isattained. Processes that are based on similar principles include Structural Reaction Injection Molding (SRIM)and different versions of vacuum assisted RTM (Figs 20.1 and 20.2).- 1 -
Emilian Popa Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012
RTM offers the promise of producing low cost composite parts with complex structures and large near netshapes. Relatively fast cycle times with good surface definition and appearance are easily achievable. Theability to consolidate parts allows the saving of considerable parts allows the saving of considerable amount of time over conventional lay-up processes. Since RTM is not limited by the size of the autoclave or by pressure,new tooling approaches can be utilized to fabricate large, complicated structures. However, the development of the RTM process has not fulfilled its full potential. For example , the RTM process is yet to be automate inoperations such as performing, reinforcement loading, demolding and trimming. Therefore, RTM can beconsidered an intermediate volume molding process (Krolewski 1990).Several unresolved issues in RTM encountered by composite engineers are in the areas of process automation, performing, tooling, mold flow analysis can resin chemistry. During the last decade, rapid advances in RTMtechnology development have demonstrated the potential of the RTM process for producing advancedcomposite parts. The advantages and associated disadvantages of the RTM process are summarized. As thedevelopment of this process is rapid, some of the disadvantages may be overcome by the advances made in thistechnology.Advantages are:-Class A surface: surface definition is superior to lay-up. In addition, using matched tools for the mold,one can improve the finish of all the surfaces.-Close tolerance: Parts can be made with better reproducibility than with layup.-Design tailorability: Reinforcement and combination of reinforcements can be used to meet specific properties-Fast cycles: Production cycles are much faster that with layup-Filler: Filler systems can be used to reduce cost, improve fire/smoke performance, surface appearanceand crack resistance.-Gel coat: One or both mold surfaces can be gel-coated to improve surface performance.-Good mechanical properties: Mechanical properties of molded parts are comparable to other compositefabrication processes.-Good moldability: Large and complex shapes can be made efficiently and inexpensively. In addition,many mold materials can be used-Inserts: Ribs, bosses, cores, inserts and special reinforcement can be added easily.-Labor saving: The skill level of operator is less critical.-Low tooling cost: Clamping pressure is low compared to other closed mold operations.-Low volatile emission: Volatile emissions are low because RTM is a closed mold process. The worker is not exposed to chemical vapors as with the lay-up process.Disadvantages are:-Mold design: The mold design is critical and requires good tools or great skill. Improper gating or venting may result in defects.-Mold filling: Control of flow pattern or resin uniformity is difficult. Radii and edges tend to be resin-rich.-Properties are equivalent to those with matched-die molding (assuming proper fiber wetout etc) but arenot generally as good as with vacuum bagging, filament winding or pultrusim-Reinforcement movement during resin injection is sometimes a problem.- 2 -
Emilian Popa Injection Molding Design Guide Manual 2012
In the following sections, the resin transfer molding process is discussed in terms of the unit operationsinvolved, to familiarize readers with the basic steps of the RTM process. The discussion covers details such asmaterials of construction, mold design, performing, curing and demolding. Processing issues are mentioned ineach individual unit operation. Relevant variations of RTM such as vacuum assisted resin transfer molding andflexible molding tools are summarized.Process physics is described with emphasis placed on the principles that govern the RTM process; these areapplied in the use of computer simulations. Through the design tools such as simulation codes for mold fillinganalysis, engineers are able to predict or diagnose the problems in gating and venting in the design stage. Theusefulness of such design tools is discussed in detail, giving the relevant advantages and disadvantages.RTM ProcessThe RTM process can be viewed as seven unit operations. The general practice and processes issues aredescribed for each unit operation.Fiber reinforcementSelection of the proper reinforcement type should take into consideration loading condition, part geometry(size, thickness), mechanical properties and surface finish. The quantity of parts demanded also determines theselection. The reinforcement normally carries 90% of the load in a composite and provides over 90% of thestiffess. The reinforcement in a composite can be designed to match the strength requirements of the part. Thefollowing , characteristics should be considered when selecting fiber reinforcements:Volume fraction : ratio of the volume of a given mass of reinforcement to the volume of the same componentafter molding:Wash resistance: ability of a reinforcement to withstand movement due to fluid motion or salvation of thereinforcement binder by the resin.Wettability : ability of a reinforcement to reach a condition wherein all voids in the reinforcement are filledwith resin;Sizing : most fibers are coated with size for better wettability and bonding but the size may influence the curekinetics during the manufacturing.Most standard reinforcement materials for composites can be used, but fiberglass, carbon and aramid are themost common in RTM. One requirement is that the reinforcement should hold its shape during the injection phase. Therefore, the reinforcements are generally stitched, woven or bonded together. Reinforcement build-ups in certain areas can easily be included. For example, woven roving and fabric can be combined withcontinuous strand mat and chopped strand mat in applications where higher strengths are required.Hybrid systems composed of high performance reinforcement such as carbon fiber and aramid fiber and also beincorporated in RTM laminates. Surfacing materials called veils can be used in the performs to hide the imprintof fibers, for improved surface finish. Another application of surfacing veil is to achieve a resin-rich skin toimprove corrosion resistance.- 3 -

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