Lawrence Robbins, ROBBINS, RUSSELL, ENG-LERT, ORSECK, UNTEREINER & SAUBER, LLP, Wash-ington, D.C., for Appellant. Mark D. Lytle, OFFICE OF THEUNITED STATES ATTORNEY, Alexandria, Virginia, forAppellee.
Robert P. Trout, Amy Berman Jack-son, Gloria B. Solomon, TROUT CACHERIS, PLLC, Wash-ington, D.C.; Mark A. Hiller, ROBBINS, RUSSELL,ENGLERT, ORSECK, UNTEREINER & SAUBER, LLP,Washington, D.C., for Appellant. Neil H. MacBride, UnitedStates Attorney, David B. Goodhand, Assistant United StatesAttorney, Rebeca H. Bellows, Assistant United States Attor-ney, Charles E. Duross, Special Assistant United States Attor-ney, Amanda Aikman, Special Assistant United StatesAttorney, OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES ATTORNEY,Alexandria, Virginia, for Appellee.
KING, Circuit Judge:In August 2009, former Louisiana congressman William J.Jefferson was convicted in the Eastern District of Virginia of eleven offenses — including conspiracy, wire fraud, bribery,money laundering, and racketeering — arising from hisinvolvement in multiple bribery and fraud schemes. Jeffersonhas appealed his convictions on several grounds: (1) that anerroneous instruction was given to the jury with respect to thebribery statute’s definition of an "official act"; (2) that anothererroneous instruction was given with respect to the "quid proquo" element of the bribery-related offenses; (3) that Jeffer-son’s schemes to deprive citizens of honest services do notconstitute federal crimes; and (4) that venue was improper onone of his wire fraud offenses.
As explained below, we
In this appeal, Jefferson challenges his aggregate sentence of 156months in prison only insofar as he contests his convictions.
Appeal: 09-5130 Document: 116 Date Filed: 03/26/2012 Page: 2 of 64