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rezaee_et_al_2006

rezaee_et_al_2006

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Relationships between permeability, porosity and pore throat size in carbonate rocks usingregression analysis and neural networks
This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.2006 J. Geophys. Eng. 3 370(http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-2140/3/4/008)Download details:IP Address: 171.64.171.238The article was downloaded on 27/03/2012 at 15:26Please note thatterms and conditions apply.Viewthe table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepagefor more HomeSearchCollectionsJournalsAboutContact usMy IOPscience
 
I
P
P
J
G
E
3
Relationships between permeability,porosity and pore throat size in carbonaterocks using regression analysis and neuralnetworks
M R Rezaee
1,3
, A Jafari
1
and E Kazemzadeh
2
1
University of Tehran, University College of Science, School of Geology, Tehran, Iran
2
NIOC
/
Research Institute of Petroleum IndustryE-mail:mrezaee@khayam.ut.ac.ir 
Received 5 May 2006Accepted for publication 16 October 2006Published 6 November 2006Online atstacks.iop.org/JGE/3/370
Abstract
Accurate estimation of permeability from other data has been a challenge for many years.The aim of this study was to establish relationships between permeability, porosity and porethroat size, and apply these relationships in a predictive sense. Regression analysis wasutilized to achieve a set of relationships between permeability, porosity and pore throat sizefor 144 carbonate samples. These relationships can be used to estimate permeability fromporosity and pore throat radii. Also in this study, a fully-connected multi-layer perceptronnetwork was used to predict permeability from porosity and pore throat radii. An artificialneural network, a biologically inspired computing method which has an ability to learn,self-adjust, and be trained, provides a powerful tool in solving complex problems. Thesecharacteristics have enabled artificial neural networks to be more successful in predictingpermeability when compared to regression analysis.This study also indicates that pore throat radii corresponding to a mercury saturation of 50%(r 
50
) is the best permeability predictor for carbonates with complex pore networks.
Keywords:
permeability, porosity, pore throat radii, carbonates, regression analysis andartificial neural networks
1. Introduction
Permeability,which indicates the capacity of a reservoir todeliver hydrocarbons, is one of the most important parametersfor reservoir studies. Variation of permeability is relatedto a series of factors, and there have been many efforts toestablisharelationshipbetweenthesefactorsandpermeability.McGowen and Bloch (1985), Atkinson
et al
(1990) and Bloch(1991) noted the relationship between facies and permeability.The inuence of composition on porosity andpermeability is reportedby several workers (Seeman and Scherer 1984, Schere1987, Pittman and Larese1987,
3
Presentaddress:CurtinUniversityofTechnology,DepartmentofPetroleumEngineering, Technology Park West, Kensington, Western Australia 6151,Australia.
Marion
et al
1989, Smosna1989and Ahmed
et al
1991). Theinfluence of textural parameters and sedimentary structures onpermeability was studied by Chilingar (1964), Berg (1970), Beard and Weyl (1973), Bloch (1991), Panda and Lake (1994) andHurstandRosvoll(1991). Manyattemptshavebeenmadeto establish a relationship between porosity and permeability(Berg1970, Bloch1991). Other parameters which have been used to estimate permeability include thesurface area of the grain spaces (Carmen1937, Johnson
et al
1987and Schwartzand Banavar 1989), formation resistivity factor (Archie1942, Katz and Thompson1986), capillary pressure (Dullien1979, Swanson1981, Serra1984,Pittman1992,Rezaee and Lemon 1997), nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time (Ahmed
et al
1991), sonic transit time (Iverson1990,Vernik and Nur 1991) and pore throat characteristics derived from image
1742-2132/06/040370+07$30.00 © 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting Printed in the UK
370
 
Relationships between permeability, porosity and pore throat size in carbonate rocks using regression analysis and neural networks
analysis of thin sections (Doyen1988, Ehrlich
et al
1991,Rezaee and Griffiths1996,Rezaee and Lemon 1996). Many studies have recently been targeted to predict
permeability
from well log data using artificial neural networks methods(e.g., Mohaghegh
et al
1995, Huang
et al
1996,Kadkhodai
et al
2005, Helle
et al
2001,Zhang
et al
2006).Core analysis under ambient or reservoir conditions isa common method for direct measurement of permeability.Another method of measuring permeability is well testing.Due to their high costs, only a limited number of core analysesand well tests are available in any field (Mohaghegh
et al
1994). Cuttings are available in almost all wells. The mercuryinjection technique may be used on well cutting or chips(Jennings1987). As the reservoir properties such as porosityand permeability are controlled by the size and arrangementof pores and throats (McCreesh
et al
1991), the mercuryinjection method is commonly employed to characterize poresizedistributionand permeability in porousmedia(Kolodzie 1980, Swanson1981, Katz and Thompson1986and 1987, Pittman1992). Mostofthesestudieshavebeenforsandstones,and there is lack of comprehensive study for carbonates.In this study, regression analysis and artificial neuralnetwork (ANN) computing techniques were used to predictpermeability from porosity and pore throat sizes derived frommercury injection analysis for carbonate rocks. The resultsof both methods were then compared. This paper also brieflydiscussesthedifferencesintermsofpermeability,porosityandpore throat radii relationships in carbonates and sandstones.
2. Background
Several workers have attempted to correlate capillary pressuredata with permeability. Washburn (1921) expressed therelationship between mercury capillary pressures and porethroat radii as:
C
=
2
γ 
Cos
θ/r
c
,
(1)where
P
C
is capillary pressure,
γ 
is mercury surface tension,
θ
is contact angle and
r
c
is the radius of the pore throat beingintruded by mercury. Considering
γ 
=
480 (dynes
/
cm),
θ
=
140
for mercury
/
air, the equation becomes:
C
=
107
.
6
/r
c
,
(2)where
P
C
is in psi and
r
c
is in micrometers. In this equation,the contact angle commonly used is 140
(Ritter and Drake1945, Juhola and Wiig, 1949).Purcell (1949) related capillary pressure empirically toair permeability through the graphical integral of the curveof mercury saturation versus reciprocal capillary pressuresquared. Swanson (1977) noticed that the complete saturationof effectively interconnected pore spaces with a non-wettingphase (Wood’s metal) corresponded to the apex of thehyperbola of a log-log mercury injection capillary pressurescurve. Swanson (1981) empirically expressed the relationshipbetweenpermeabilityandthehyperbolaofthelog-logmercuryinjection capillary pressures curve by the following equation:
K
air 
=
339
(S 
HG
/P 
C
)
1
.
691apex
,
(3)where
air 
is air permeability (mD),
S
 HG
is the mercurysaturation (%) corresponding to the apex of the hyperbolaand
P
C
is capillary pressure (psi).Katz and Thompson (1986,1987) reported the following relationship:
K
=
1
/
226
(lc
2
)(S/S 
0
),
(4)where
is air permeability (mD),
lc
is the characteristic poresize (e.g. the calculated pore size (mm) for the thresholdpressureatwhichmercuryformsaconnectedpathwaythroughthe sample), and
S
/
S
0
is the ratio of rock conductivity tothe conductivity of the formation water. This approach,however, requires a rock sample, laboratory measurement of thethresholdpressureandmeasurementofrockandformationwater conductivity.Winland developed an empirical relationship betweenporosity, air permeability and throat size corresponding toa mercury saturation of 35% (r 
35
). This relationship waspublished by Kolodzie (1980) as:Log
r
35
=
0
.
732 + 0
.
588Log
K
air 
0
.
864Log
φ,
(5)where
r
35
corresponds to the pore-throat radius (microns) at35% mercury saturation from a mercury injection capillarypressure test,
air 
is the uncorrected air permeability (mD) and
ø
is porosity (%).Pittman (1992) extended Winland’s work and introduceda series of equations extracted from the multi-regressionanalyses of mercury injection, permeability and porosity dataof202sandstonesamples. Hepointedoutthattheequation(6)yieldsthebestcorrelationcoefficientforpermeability,porosityand mercury injection data.Log
K
=
1
.
221 + 1
.
415Log
φ
+ 1
.
512Log
r
25
(6)where
 K 
istheuncorrectedairpermeability(mD),
ø
isporosity(%) and
r
25
is the pore throat corresponding to the 25thpercentileofsaturationonacumulativemercuryinjectionplot.
3. Data analysis and preparation
A set of 144 carbonate core samples with a wide range of porosity and permeability (figure1)was selected from several oil fields in central and south-west Iran. Samples show awide variety of textures including mudstone, wackestone,packstone, grainstone and dolostone, with different crystalsizes. Porosity types were generally fine intercrystalline,vuggy and moldic.Selected samples were cleaned by toluene in a Soxhletapparatus and dried at 60
C for 24 h prior to any analysis.Porosity and permeability were measured using an Ultra-Porosimeter 200 A, an Ultra-Permeameter. Core porosityvalues ranged from 0.5 to 33.5% with a mean value of 11%.The range of permeability was between 0.006 and 414 mDwith a mean value of 21 mD.Mercury-air capillary pressure tests were conductedto estimate pore-throat radius with maximum pressure of 1500psi. Mercuryinjectioncapillarypressuresweremeasuredusing a Micromeritics Autopore. A mercury injection curve isa curve which represents the increasing saturation of mercuryas a function of pressure. Mercury injection curves can371

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